The Nineteenth Letter

THE MIRACLES OF MUHAMMED (PBUH)

History : 15-06-2015 17:35

This treatise describes more than three hundred miracles. And as it describes the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), itself a miracle, so is it itself a wonder in three or four respects, proceeding from the miracle of his prophethood.

The First: Although it is more than a hundred pages long, and is based on traditions and narrations, it was written in an unusual fashion - in the mountains and the countryside, completely from memory, and without referring to any book. It was completed, moreover, in a few days by working two or three hours every day, or a total of twelve hours.

The Second: Despite its prolixity, this work did not cause tedium to its writer, nor does it lack a pleasant fluency for the reader. In fact, it aroused such ardor even in my apathetic scribes that in these hard and distressing times, as many as seventy copies were handwritten in this neighborhood within a single year[*]. Those aware of this property of the treatise concluded that this must be a wonder deriving from the miraculousness of his messengership, peace, and blessings be upon him.

The Third: Before any tawafuk had occurred to us, in the copies of this treatise written by nine scribes who did not see each other while writing and who were inexperienced and were unaware of what tawafuk[**] means the words referring to the gracious Messenger were unintentionally arranged beneath one another throughout the whole treatise. This was the same for the words referring to the Qur'an in the fifth part. Anyone who is fair to the slightest degree will not consider this tawafuk a mere coincidence. In fact, whoever observed this tawafuk definitely concluded that it was a wondrous sign and a marvel derived from the miraculousness of Muhammad (ASW).


The Essentials explained at the beginning of this treatise have extreme importance. As for the narrations related, they are accepted as authentic by the authorities on narrations, and they report the most established fact of the messengership of Muhammad (ASW). Now to enumerate the merits of this treatise, another treatise of the same length as this one would be needed; we therefore invite those who desire to discover its merits to read it, if only once. A Reminder: In this work, I have related many narrations, although I have no books on narrations to refer to. Should there be any errors in the wording of the narrations, I request that they either be corrected, or be considered as paraphrases of narration. For, according to the prevailing opinion, "the paraphrase of narrations is permissible," in which case the narrator puts the meaning of the narration into his own words. This being the case, narrations with possible errors of wording should be regarded as paraphrases.
Said Nursi.

[*]At the time this treatise was written, it was a crime to use the Islamic alphabet (as still is), to publish or write a single religious book, because of the despotic rule of the then government, which was known for its hostile attitude toward Islam. For this reason these treatises could then be secretly multiplied only by handwriting using the Qur'anic letters. The author and his close students spent many of those years in different prisons, and others, in exile.

[**]Tawafuk: the unintentional arrangement of the same words on a vertical line in a page, or in the same place of different pages. This kind of arrangement also appears in the words referring to Allah (J.J.) in the copies of the Qur'an written by his nearest student Ahmed Husrev Efendi (RA) and his appointed successor. This aspect has been explained by Said Nursi (RA) in this Nineteenth Letter as the Eighteenth Essential. All of this shows the actuality of tawafuk as a work of an unseen hand.

The Miracles of Muhammed (PBUH)

In His Name, be He glorified!

And there is nothing but it glorifies Him with praise.

In the Name of the God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
He it is Who has sent His Prophet with guidance and the religion of truth to make it supreme over all religion: and sufficient is God as a Witness. * Muhammed is the Prophet of God... [to the end of the verse]
{Qur'an, 48:28-9}

[Since the Nineteenth and Thirty-First Words concerning the prophethood of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prove it with decisive evidence, we assign the verification of that side of the subject to those Words. As a supplement to them we will merely show here, in Ninenteenth Signs, some of the flashes of that great truth.]
FIRST SIGN:

The Owner and Master of this universe does everything with knowledge, disposes every affair with wisdom, directs everything all-seeingly, treats everything all-knowingly, and arranges in everything with His will and wisdom such causes, purposes and uses that are apparent to us. Since the One who creates knows, surely the One who knows will speak, since He will speak, surely He will speak to those who have consciousness, thought, and speech. Since He will speak to those who have thought, surely He will speak to humankind, whose make-up and awareness are more comprehensive of all conscious beings. Since He will speak to humankind, surely He will speak to the most perfect of mankind and those most worthy of address and highest in morality, and who are qualified to guide humanity; then He will certainly speak to Muhammad (SAW), who, as friend and foe alike testify, is of the highest character and morality, and who is obeyed by one fifth of humanity, to whose spiritual rule half of the globe has submitted, with the radiance of whose light has been illumined the future of mankind for thirteen centuries, to whom the believers, the luminous segment of humanity, renew their oath of allegiance five times a day, for whose happiness and peace they pray, for whom they call down Allah's blessings and bear admiration and love in their hearts.

Certainly, He will speak to Muhammad (SAW), and Indeed He has done so; He will make him the Messenger, and Indeed He has done so; He will make him the guide for the rest of humanity, and Indeed He has done so.
SECOND SIGN:

The Noble Messenger (SAW) declared His prophethood, and presented to humanity a decree as the Glorious Qur'an and manifest miracles which number, according to the scholars, one thousand. The occurrence of those miracles in their entirety is as certain as the fact that He declared himself prophet. In fact, as a shown by the words of the most obstinate unbelievers quoted in various places of the Wise Our'an, even they could not deny the occurrence of His miracles, but only called them -hasha wa kella!-(Allah forbid) sorcery, in order to satisfy themselves, or to deceive their followers. The miracles of Muhammad (SAW) have the certainty of confirmation by consensus of Ulema (scholars of Islam) to the hundreth degree. The Miracle is the conformation by the CREATOR of the universe of His declaration of Prophethood; it has the effect of the words,'You have indeed spoken the truth!' Suppose that you said in the assembly of a ruler, while being observed by Him, 'The true ruler has appointed me to such and such position.' At a time when you were asked to prove your claim, the word 'Yes' uttered by the ruler would sufficiently support you. Or, if the ruler changed his usual practice and attitude at your request, this would confirm your claim even more soundly and more definitely than would the word 'Yes.' In the same way, ALLAH's Most Noble Messenger claimed: 'I am the envoy of the CREATOR of this universe. My proof is that He will change His unbroken order at my request and my prayer. Now look at my fingers: He makes them run like a fountain with five spigots. Look at the moon: by a gesture of my finger, He splits it in two. Look at that tree: to affirm me, and to bear witness to me, it moves and comes near to me. Look at this food: although it is barely enough for two or three men, it satisfies two or three hundred. 'Further he shows hundreds of similar miracles. However, the evidences of the veracity of this high being and the proofs of his prophethood are not restricted to his miracles. All his deeds and acts, his words and behavior, his moral conduct and manners, his character and appearance prove to the attentive his truthfulness and seriousness. Indeed, many people such as Abdullah b. Salam, the famous scholar of the Children of Israel, came to belief merely by seeing him, and said, 'No lie can hide in this face, nor can any fraud be found in it!' Although many of the researchers have concluded that the proofs of the prophethood of Muhammad and his miracles number about one thousand, there are thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of proofs of his prophethood. And hundreds of thousands of truth-seeking men (muhakkikiin) with varying opinions have affirmed his prophethood in an equal number of ways. The Wise Our'an alone demonstrates thousands of the proofs of his prophethood, in addition to its own forty aspects of miraculousness. Since prophethood is as a phenomenon of humanity, and hundreds of thousands of individuals who claimed prophethood and performed miracles have lived and passed away; then, the prophethood of Muhammad (SAW) is of a certanity superior to that of the prophethood of all the others. For whatever evidences, qualities and attributes became the means of the prophethood and messengership of all the messengers such as Jesus (AS) and Moses (AS), they are all owned in a more perfect and comprehensive fashion by Muhammad (SAW). And since the causes and means of prophetic authority exist more perfectly in the person of Muhammad (SAW), this authority is to be found in him with more certanity than all the other prophets.
THIRD SIGN:

The miracles of Muhammad (SAW) are extremely varied. Because his messengership is universal, he has been distinguished by miracles that relate to almost all species of creation. Just as the supreme aide of a renowned ruler, arriving with many gifts in a city where various people live, will be welcomed by a representative of each people who acclaims him and bids him welcome in his own language so, too, when the supreme messenger of the Monarch of Pre- and Post-Eternity (Ezel and Ebed Sultani) honored the universe by coming as an envoy to the inhabitants of the earth, and brought with him the light of truth and spiritual gifts sent by the Creator of the universe and derived from the realities of the whole universe, each species of creation -from water, rocks, trees, animals and human beings to the moon, sun and stars- welcomed him and acclaimed his prophethood, each in its own language, and each bearing one of his miracles. Now it would require a voluminous work to mention all his miracles. As the punctilious scholars have written many volumes concerning the proofs of His prophethood, here we will briefly point out only the general category into which fall fhe miracles that are definite and accepted as accurate reports.

The evidences of the prophethood of Muhammad (SAW) fall into two main categories:

The first is called irhasat and includes the paranormal events that happened at the time of his birth, or before his declaration of prophethood.

The second group pertains to all the remaining evidences of the prophethood, and contains two subdivisions:

1) Those wonders that were manifested after his departure from this world in order to confirm his prophethood, and
2) Those that he exhibited during the era of his prophethood. The latter has also two parts:
2.1) The evidences of his prophethood that became manifest in his own personality, his inner and outer being, his moral conduct and perfection, and
2.2) The miracles that: related to substantial matters. The last part again has two branches:
2.2.1) Those concerning the Qur'an and spirituality, and
2.2.2) Those relating to matter and creation. This last branch is again divided into two categories:
2.2.2.1) The first involves the paranormal happenings that occured during his mission either to break the stubbornness of the unbelievers, or to augment the faith of the belivers. This category has twenty different sorts, such as the splitting of the moon, the flowing of water from the fingers, the satisfying of large numbers with a little food, and the speaking of trees, rocks and animals. Each of these sorts has also many instances, and thus has, in meaning, the strength of confirmation by consensus.
2.2.2.2) As for the second category, this includes events lying in the future that occured as he had predicted upon Allah (SWT)'s instructions. Now starting from the last category, we will summarize a list of them.[*]

[*] Unfonunately, I could not write as I had intended without choice, I wrote as my mind dictated, and I could not completely conform to the order of this classification.
FOURTH SIGN:

There is no limit to the tidings of Muhammad, upon whom be peace and blessings, gave from the Unseen through the instruction of the Knower of the Unseen. As we have mentioned the types of these tidings in the Twenty-Fifth Word, which concerns the miraculousness of the Qur'an, and to a degree explained and given evidence of them, we now again to that Word the explanation of the information he gave from the Unseen about past times and prophets, as well as truths concerning Divinity, the cosmos and the hereafter and will point out a few of the many correct predictions God's Messenger brought concerning his Companions, his Family and his nation. But first, for a complete understanding of the subject, we will state Six Essentials as a prelude.

First Essential

All the states and acts of God's Most Noble Messenger bear witness to his veracity and prophethood, but not each of them need be miraculous. For God Almighty sent him in the form of a human being so that he might be a guide and leader to human beings in their social affairs, and the acts and deeds by means of which they attain happiness in both worlds; and so that he might disclose to human beings the wonders of God's art and His disposive power that underly all occurrences and are in appearance customary, but in reality miracles of Power. If, then, he had abandoned the human state in his acts and become paranormal in all aspects, he could not have been a leader, or have instructed human beings with his acts, states and aspects. He was, indeed, honored with paranormal phenomena in order to prove his prophethood to obstinate unbelievers, and, in case of need, occcasionally performed miracles. But his miracles never occurred in such an obvious fashion as would have compelled everyone to believe, whether willingly or unwillingly. For, in accordance with the purpose of the tests and trials that man is to undergo, the way must be shown to him without depriving him of his free will: the door of the intelligence must remain open, and its freedom must not be snatched from its hand. But if miracles had occurred in so apparent a way, intelligence would have had no choice; Abu Jahl would have believed as did Abu Bakr, coal would have had the value of diamonds, and no purpose would have remained for testing and accountability. It is a source of amazement that while thousands of men of different character came to believe through observing a single miracle of his, a single proof of his prophethood, or a word of his, or through merely seeing his face, some wretches are nowadays going astray, as if those thousands of proofs of his prophethood were not sufficient evidence, although they all have come down to us through authentic transmission and with certain proofs, and have caused many thousands of discerning men to accept faith.

Second Essential:

Allah's Most Noble Messenger SAW is a human being; hence he acts like a human being. He is also a messenger, and from this point of view he is an interpreter and an envoy of Almighty Allah His message is based upon revelation, which falls into two categories: The first is explicit revelation. In this case, the Most Noble Prophet is merely an interpreter and announcer, and has no share in the content. The Qur'an and some Sacred arrations are included in this kind of revelation. The second is implicit revelation. The essence and summary of this is also based on revelation or inspiration, but its explanation and description are left to the Messenger (SAW). When he explains and describes such revelation, sometimes he again relies on the other revelations or inspirations, or sometimes he speaks in terms of his own insight. And, when he resorts to his own interpretation, he either relies on the perceptive power given him on account of his prophetic mission, or he speaks as a human being and conformably to the usage, custom, and level of common comprehension. Thus, all the details of every prophetic narration are not necessarily derived from pure revelation, nor should the lofty signs of messengership be sought in such thoughts and transactions of his as required by his human state. Since some truths are revealed to him in a brief and abstract form, and he himself describes them in the light of his insight and according to common comprehension, the metaphors and allusions in his descriptions sometimes may need explanation, or even interpretation. There are indeed some facts that the human mind can grasp or by way of comparison. For example, once in the presence of the Prophet (SAW), a loud noise was heard. The Prophet (SAW) said, "This is the noise of a rock that has been rolling down for seventy years and has now reached the lowest depths of Hell.' An hour later the news came: a famous hypocrite who had recently turned seventy years old had died and gone to Hell. This report showed the Interpretation of the eloquent analogy of the Prophet (SAW).

Third Essential:

If any related tradition is in the forn of tawatur[*] it is indisputable. There are two kinds of tawatur. One is 'pure tawatur,' the other is 'tawatur in meaning.' The latter (tawatur in meaning) is also of two kinds: The first includes those which are 'agreed upon by silence. For example, if a man relates an incident in front of his community, and the listeners do not contradict him, that is, they respond to him by keeping silent, this implies their acceptance of the report. In particular, if that community consists of extremely truthful and honest individuals in such a degree that they would reject any error, consider any lie as reprehensible, criticize any wrong-doing and in addition show an interest in the reported incident, the silence of that community strongly testifies to the incident having indeed occurred.

[ [*]Translator's note: Tawatur is the kind of report or narration of the Messenaer of Allah (SWT) that is transmitted by numerous authorities and about which there is no room for doubt. ]

The second kind of 'tawatur in meaning' is that which occurs when, for example, different people relate a certain incident in different accounts but are unanimously agreed on the occurrence of the incident. This also becomes tawatur in meaning, and the actual occurrence of the incident is not harmed by differences in detail. But apart from this there are also cases when a report supplied by even a single person may be regarded as definite, with the degree of tawatur under some certain conaitions: when supported by evidences instead of (many) narrators such a narration also becomes definite.

Most of the reports concerning the miracles and the evidences of the prophethood of Allah's Most Noble Messenger (SAW) fall into the three categories of tawatur as mentioned above. As for the others, although they are transmitted through the report of only one person, they also have the certainty of tawatur since they have received the acceptance of the meticulous authorities on tradition. Of such meticulous authorities were those geniuses who were called Al-Hafiz, who had committed to memory at least 100,000 narrations, offered for fifty years their morning-prayer with the ablution of the night-prayer, and produced the Six Accurate Books of narration headed by those of Bukhari and Muslim. [ Other 4 books are Sunens of Ebu Davud, Tirmizi, and Nesai, Muvatta of Imam Malik. (RA ecmain (May Allah Please with them all.)) ] Without doubt any report scrutinized and accepted by them cannot fall short of the definitiveness or tawatur. For they acquired such intimacy with the traditions of Allah's Most Noble Messenger (SAW), became so familiar with his exalted style and manner that they could at first sight spot a single false narration among several hundred reports, and would reject it, saying, "This cannot be a prophetic narration; it does not have his (SAW) wording.' Since they were able to recognize the precious qualify of the prophetic narration, like an expert jeweller, there was no possibility of their confusing any other word with that of the Prophet (SAW). Some researchers, however, such as Ibn al-Jawzi, went to such extremes in their criticism as to regard many accurate narrations as false (mevzu). Nevertheless, this does not mean that the meaning of every false (mevzu) wording is wrong; rater it means that the wording itself is not that of the Prophet (SAW).

Question: What is the benefit of citing the chain of transmission of a narration at such a degree that even if it is not needed in the case of a well-known, famous incident they still say,'So-and-so informed so-and-so, etc.'?

Answer: Its benefits are many. One is that the citing of the chain shows the concurrence of the truthful, reliable, and exacting narration-scientists and the unanimity of the discerning authorities whose names are included. This is as if each and every one of those scholars and authorities puts his signature on the accuracy of the tradition, and places his seal on it.

Question: Why were the miraculous events not transmitted in the form of tawatur and in as many ways (channels) and with as great emphasis as the basic injunctions (commands) of the Sacred Law (the Sharia):

Answer: Because the majority of the commands of the Sacred Law are always needed by the majority of people for they all are applicable to each individual. But every one need not know every miracle; even if he does, it suffices him to hear it only once. It is, in fact, like the kind of obligation the observance of which some will absolve the rest; it is quite enough for miracles to be known only to some. For this reason, even if the occurrence and reality of a miracle is established to a degree ten times greater than an injunction of the Sacred Law, it will still come to us through one or two narrators, whereas the injunction is narrated by ten or twenty persons.

Fourth Essential

The future events that Allah's Most Noble Messenqer [SAW] predicted were not isolated incidents; instead he predicted general and recurring events in a particular way. That is, in each such report, he displayed a different aspect of one phenomenon out of several. This is why when the narrator combines these different aspects, they may seem at variance with realty. There are, for example, varying narrations concerning the Mahdi, each with different details and descriptions. However, as was explained in a section of the Twenty-Fourth Word, Allah's Messenger (SAW) gave the tidings, relying on revelation, of a Mahdi who would come in every century to preserve the faith of the Muslims, help them not to fall into despair in the face of disasters, and link the hearts of the believers with the people of the Prophet's Family (RA) that constitute a luminous chain in the world of Islam. Similar to the Great Mahdi (AS) who is promised to come at the end of time, one or more Mahdis from the Prophet's Family (RA), have been found in every century. Indeed, one of them, was among the Abbasid Caliphs who were the descendants of the Prophet's Family, and had many of the characteristics of the Great Mahdi. The reason, then, for the apparent variance between the different narrations (concerning Mehdis) is that the qualities of the Great Mahdi (AS) were confused with those of the revivalists (muceddids) who precede him.

Fift Essential:

Since none other than Allah knows the Unseen, Allah's Messenger too could not know it himself. Instead, Allah Almighty communicated to him the tidings of the Unseen, and he transmitted them. And since Allah Almighty is All-Wise and Most Merciful, His Wisdom and Mercy require that most of the matters of the Unseen be veiled or obscure. For in this world events disagreeable to human beings are numerous; prior knowledge of their happening would be painful. It is for this reason that death and the appointed hour of death are left obscure, and the mishaps that are to befall human beings remain behind the veil of the Unseen.

Again, as a result of His Wisdom and Mercy, Allah Almighty did not entirely or in detail inform His Messenger about the awesome events that would befall his Family and Companions after his demise, in order not to hurt his extremely tender compassion for his nation and his firm affection for his Family.[*]

[*] For example, he was not made to know about Aisha's taking part in the battle of the Camel so that his deep love and affection toward her, with whom Allah be pleased, would not be hurt. He said, in fact, to his wives, "I wish I knew which one of you will be involved in that incident." Later he was apparently made aware of it to a slightly greater extent, as he once said to Ali, with whom Allah be pleased, "Some event will take place between you and Aisha." For certain divine purposes, He made some of these significant events known to him, but not in all their awesomeness. As for pleasant events, He communicated them to His Prophet sometimes in outline and sometimes in detail, and the Prophet in turn made them known to his Companions. Thus those tidings were accurately transmitted to us by the traditionists who were at the height of piety, justice and truthfulness, and who feared very much the warning of the prophetic tradition,

Whoever knowingly tells a lie concerning me should prepare for a seat in Hell,

and that of the Qur'anic verse,

Who, then does more wrong than the one who utters a lie concerning Allah? [Qur'an 39:32]

Sixth Essential:

Although some qualities and aspects of Allah's Most Noble Messenger have been described in books of history and biography, most of those qualities relate to his humanness. But in reality, the spiritual personality and the sacred nature of this blessed being are so exalted and luminous that the qualities described in books fall short of his high stature. For, according to the rule, "The cause is like the doer," everyday, even at this moment, the amount of the prayers performed by all his nation is being added to the record of his perfections. He is also everyday the object of the countless invocations of his vast nation, in addition to being the object of infinite Divine Mercy in an infinite fashion and with an infinite capacity to receive. He is, indeed, the result and the most perfect fruit of creation, the interpreter and the beloved of the Creator of the cosmos. Hence, his true nature in its entirety, and the truth of all his perfections, cannot be contained in the human qualities recorded in books of history and biography. Certainly, the stature of a blessed being with the Archangels Gabriel and Michael as two aides-de-camp at his side in the battle of Badr, is not to be found within the shape of a person bargaining with a Beduin at the market place over the price of a horse, bringing forth Hudhayfa as his sole witness.

In order not to proceed in error, one should raise his mind beyond the ordinary qualities of the Prophet that pertain to his participation in the human state, and behold instead his true nature and luminous stature that pertain to the rank of Messengership. Otherwise, One will either show him irreverence, or instil doubts in oneself. Heed the following comparison for an understanding of this mystery.

Suppose that a date pit was planted under the earth, has sprouted and become a large, fertile tree, and is still continuing to grow taller and broader. Or that the egg of a peacock was incubated, a chick was hatched from it and became a beautifully adorned peacock with the imprint of Power all over it, and is still growing bigger and prettier. Now there exist qualities, properties and precisely balanced elements that belong to the pit and the egg, but are not as great and significant as those of the tree and the bird that emerge from them. So, while describing the qualities of the tree and the bird together with those of the pit and the egg, one should turn one's attention from the pit to the tree, and from the egg to the bird, so that one's intellect may find the description acceptable. Otherwise, if you claim, "I have obtained thousands of dates from a pit, " or "This egg is the king of all birds," you will invite others to contradict and deny your words.

The humanness of Allah's Messenger may be likened to that pit or egg, and his essential nature, illumined with the prophetic mission, to the Tuba tree of Paradise, or to the birds of Paradise. His essential nature is, moreover, continually moving to greater perfection. That is why, when you think of the man who disputed at the market with a Beduin, you should also turn the eye of imagination to that luminous being who, riding the Rafraf, leaving Gabriel behind, reached the Distance of Two Bowstrings.[*] Otherwise you will either be disrespectful toward him, or fail to convince the imperious soul.

[*] The distance that separated the Prophet from the Divine Presence at the end of his ascension.
FIFTH SIGN

We will cite in this Sign a few examples of prophetic traditions concerning the matters of the Unseen.

It has come down to us in the form of tawatur and through an authentic narration that Allah's Messenger declared from the pulpit in the presence of his companions, "This grandson of mine, Hasan, is a master of men by means of whom Allah will reconcile two great groups." Forty years later, when the two largest armies of Islam met each other, Hasan made peace with Mu'awiya, and thus proved the prophecy of his noble grandfather, upon whom be peace and blessings.

According to another authentic narration, the Prophet said to Ali, "You will fight the perfidious, the just and the deviator," thus predicting the battles of the Camel and Siffin and that fought against the Kharijites.

He again said to Ali, when he was displaying love for Zubayr, "He will fight against you, but will be in the wrong." He also said to his wives, "One amoung you will take charge of a rebellion; many around her will be killed; and the dogs will bark all around her."

All these certain and authentic traditions are the proven predictions of the struggles of Ali against Aisha, Zubayr and Talha during the battle of the Camel, against Mu'awiya at Siffin, and against the Kharijites at Harawra and Nahruwan.

The Prophet also informed Ali about a man who would stain Ali's beard with the blood of his own head. Ali knew that man; it was Abdurrahman b. Muljam the Kharijite.

He also mentioned a man marked with a peculiar sign, Dhul-Thadia. When that man was found among the dead of the Kharijites, Ali showed him as a proof of the rightness of his cause, declaring at the same time the miracle of the Prophet. According to another authentic tradition related by Umm Salama and others, Allah's Messenger also predicted that Husain would be killed at Taff (Kerbala). Fifty years later the painful event took place as predicted. He also repeatedly predicted that after his demise, his Family would face death, calamities and exile, and gave some details. What he had predicted later came true exactly.

In this connection, A QUESTION may be asked: Although Ali, with his extraordinary bravery and profound knowledge in addition to his kinship to Allah's Messenger, greatly deserved to be Caliph, why did he not precede others in holding the Caliphate, and why did Islam experience such disorder during his caliphate?

ANSWER:

A great saint from the Prophet's Family is reported as saying, "Allah's Messenger had desired the caliphate of Ali, but it was made known to him from the Unseen that the will of Allah Almighty was different. He then abandoned his desire, submitting himself to Allah's will." One of the reasons why Allah's will was different could have been that after the demise of Allah's Messenger, when the Companions were more than ever in need of alliance and unity, if Ali had taken the leadership, this would most probably have aroused in many persons and tribes a tendency to compete, because of his pious, fearless, dignified, heroic and independent personality and his widely known courage -as was indeed the case during his caliphate- and divisions among the believers would have resulted. Another reason for the delay of Ali's caliphate is the following: at the time of his caliphate, the Muslim community, which had rapidly developing through the intermingling of many tribes and peoples, possessed such traits as reflected the opinions of the seventy-three sects that Allah's Messenger had predicted would evolve in due time.

Therefore, in the face of such disturbances, someone was needed with the wondrous strength, courage, respectability and sagacity of Ali, someone having the force of the respected Hashimites and the Prophet's Family, so that he could resist such hardships. And indeed he did so, in a fashion conformable to the prediction of the Prophet, who had said to him, "I have fought for the revelation of the Qur'an; you will fight for its explanation. " A further reason for this delay is that without Ali, the magnificence of sovereignty would most probably have caused the Umayyad dynasty to go completely astray. However, having to cater to the opposition of Ali and the Prophet's Family, and to preserve their prestige before the Muslims, the leaders of the Umayyad dynasty, willingly or unwillingly but in any case with full vigor, worked for at least encouraged their subjects and followers to do so- for the protection and propagation of the truths of faith and Islam and the Qur'anic order. Thus, thousands of punctilious expounders of the Islamic law, distinguished traditionists, saints and men of purity emerged during their reign. Had it not faced the strong religiosity, sainthood and virtuousness of Ali and of the Prophet's Family, the Umayyad dynasty would from the very beginning have pursued its own course, as happened at the end of its rule and that of the Abbasid dynasty.

It might also be asked, 'Why did the Islamic Caliphate not remain in the Prophet's Family, since they were the most deserving and fitted for it?"

ANSWER:

Worldly sovereignty is deceptive, and the Prophet's Family had been appointed to protect the Qur'anic order and the truths of Islam. Not to be deceived by the magnificence of sovereignty or the Caliphate, one should be as sinless as a prophet, or as pious and purehearted as the Four Caliphs, Omar b. Abdul-Aziz or the Mahdi of the Abbasids. In fact, the Fatimid dynasty that was established in Egypt in the name of the Prophet's Family, the rule of the Almohads in Africa and that of the Safavids in Persia, all show that worldly sovereignty is not suitable for the Prophet's Family, for it causes them to neglect their primary duty, the protection of religion and the service of Islam. When, on the other hand, they refrained from sovereignty, they brilliantly and most succesfully served Islam and the Qur'an. Now see: of the poles of sainthood decsending from Hasan -especially the Four Poles [*] and above all

[*] The four poles of sainthood, namely, Abdul Qadir Gilani, Ahmad Rufa'i, Ahmad Badawi and Ibrahim Dasuqi.

Abdul Qadir Gilani- and those imams from the lineage of Husain especially Zayn al Abidin and Jafar as Siddiq- each became a revivalist in his own right, dispelled the darkness of wrongdoing, spread the light of the Qur'an and the truths of faith, and in so doing that he was a true heir of his noble ancestor.

It may be asked, "What was the Divine Wisdom lying behind the awesome and bloody disturbances that befell the blessed Companions and sacred Islam, for they did not deserve such deep sorrow and losses?"

ANSWER:

Just as a heavy spring rainstorm activates and improves the various dispositions inherent in various vegetables, seeds and trees, making them bloom and flourish each in its own fashion, so to the disturbances that befell the Companions and their successors activated their various talents. It gave every group of them the fear that Islam was in danger, made them hurry to the protection of Islam, so that everyone within his means shouldered a function from among the various duties in the Muslim community and strove in atmost earnest. Each group fullfilled a different function, some working for the preservation of the prophetic traditions, some for the maintanence of the Qur'an and the truths of faith, and so on. Thus did they strive fervently in performing Islamic duties, thus did the flowers of different colors blossom forth, and thus were the seeds planted in the vast regions of the Muslim world and half of the globe changed into rose gardens. Sadly, with those roses, came the thorns of the deviant sects.

It was as if the Hand of Power had shaken that era with wrath, rotated it with intense vigor, electrified the men of zeal. And electrified by the centrifugal force of that movement, a great many enlightened expounders, luminous traditionists, gifted scholars, men of purity and poles of sainthood emigrated to the remote corners of the Muslim World. By causing this to come about, the Hand of Power inspires all the Muslims, from the East to the West, with enthusiasm, and awakened them to the treasures of the Qur'an. Now we return to our subject.

There are thousands of events that Allah's Messenger predicted and that happened as he predicted. Here we will mention a few of them. The majority of those we will cite are agreed upon by the six well known and most authentic tradition books, particularly by Bukhari and Muslim. And many of them are classified as tawattur in meaning, while some others, on account of being verified by meticulous researchers, may also be considered to have the certainity of tawattur.

According to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger said to his companions, "You will be victorious over all your enemies, will succeed in the conquest of Mecca, Khaybar, Damascus, Iraq, Persia and Jaresulam, and will share among yourselves the treasures of the rulers of the greatest empires, the Byzantine and the Persians." He did not say this as a matter of conjecture or personal opinion; he said it as if he had seen it, and what he said came true as perdicted, despite the fact that at the same time he had to migrate to Madina with a handfull of followers, with the rest of the world, including the environs of the Madina, hostile to him!

He also repeatedly declared, according to authentic and certain narrations, that Abu Bakr and Umar would outlive him and be his Calips, that they would act for Allah's sake and within the bounds of the pleasure of Allah and that of the prophet, that Abu Bakr's reign would be short,and that Umar would remain longer to succed in many conquests. Thus he said, "Incumbent upon you is following the path of those who come after me, Abu Bakr and Umar."

He also declared, "The earth was laid out before me, and its eastern and western extremities were displayed to me. The realm of my nation shall extend over whatever was laid out before me." And his words proved to be true.

Again, according to an authentic and certain narration, he informed his companions about what was happening in the celebrated battle of Muta, near Damascus -at a distance of one month's journey from where he was- as if he were seeing his companions fighting in the battle, and said, "Zayd has taken the banner and been hit; now Ibn Rawaha has taken the banner and been hit; now Jafar has taken the banner and been hit; now one of Allah's swords [i.e., Khalid] has taken it." Two to three weeks later Ya'la b. Munabbih returned from the battle front. In his presence, Allah's Messenger described the details of the battle, and Ya'la swore by Allah that what had taken place at the battle was exactly the same as the prophet had described.

According to an authentic and certain narration, Allah's Messenger said, "After me, the Caliphate will last thirty years then it will be rapacious monarchy. The beginning of this affair is prophethood and mercy; then it will be mercy and caliphate; then it will be rapacious monarchy; then it will be arrogance and tyranny." He thus predicted the sixth month long caliphate of Hasan, the period of four Chaliphs, and following that, the transition of Caliphate to monarchy and monarchy's being beset by intrigues and tyranny. This is exactly what later occured.

Again, according to an authentic narration, he declared, "Uthman will be killed while reading the Qur'an, and it may be that Allah will cause him to be dressed in a shirt at that time. His deposal may also be sought." These events, too, all took place exactly as predicted. Again, according to an authentic narration, he foretold the characteristics of the Umayyad dynasty and the tyrannical rule rule of many of its monarchs, including Yazid and Walid, and Muawiya's taking the leadership of Muslims. He advised justice and gentleness, and said, "When ruling, act with forebearence." He predicted that the Abbasid dynasty would emerge after the Umayyads to remain in power for a long time, and said, "The Abbasids will come forth with black banners and rule for many times more than they [the Umayyads] rule." All these predictions proved to be true.

According to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger also said, "Woe to the Arabs for the evil that has drawn near," suggesting the dreadful disorders to be caused by Jenghiz and Hulagu, and their destruction of the Abbasid dynsty. All this proved to be true. According to an authentic narration, when Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas was gravely ill, the Prophet said to him, "It may be that you will be spared so that some may bebefit by you, and others be harmed by you," thus predicting that he would be a great commander winning many victories, that many peoples would benefit from him by entering the fold of Islam, while others would be destroyed by him. His words proved to be true; Sa'd led the Muslim armies, wiped out the Persian Empire, and caused many people to reach guidance, the path of Islam.

Also according to an authentic narration, when the Negus, the Ethiopian ruler, who had accepted faith earlier, died in the seventh year of Hijra, Allah's Messenger informed his companions about it; he even performed funeral prayers for him. One week later came the news confirming the death of the Negus on the very same as the Prophet had seen it.

According to an authentic narration, when Allah's Messenger was with his closest four companions on the top of Mount Uhud (or Hira), the mountain began to tremble. He said "Steady! For on you are a prophet, a siddiq [title given to Abu Bakr meaning 'veracious'] and three martyrs." He thus foretold the martyrdom of Umar, Uthman and Ali. It too proved to true.

Now O unfortunate, heartless, wretched man who says that Muhammad was only a wise person and then closes his eyes to that sun of truth! Of all his fifteen different kinds of miracle, you have thus far heard only the hundredth part of one kind, that relating to his predictions which has in effect the certainty of tawatur. To discover future events with one's own sagacity and thus succeed even in one hundredth part of the Prophet's predictions, one would have to be of the highest genius. Even if we merely called him a genius as you call him, could such a man with the sagacity of a hundred geniuses have ever perceived anything false? Or could he have ever stooped to giving false information? Not to heed the word of such a hudredfold genius concerning happiness in both worlds is therefore the sign of a hundredfold madness.
SIXTH SIGN

[Miracles Related to the Predictions of Prophet Muhammad SAW]

According to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger said to Fatima, "You will be the first of my family to join me (after my death). "Six months later, what he said took place. He also told Abu Dharr, "You will be expelled from here [Medina], will live alone, and will die alone." All this came true twenty years later. Once, as he awakened in the house of Anas b. Malik's aunt, Umm Haram, he similingly said, "I saw my nation waging war on the seas like kings sitting on thrones." Umm Haram requested, "Pray that I too will be with them." He said, 'You shall be." Forty years later she accompanied her husband, Ubada b. Samit, on the conquest of Cyprus. She died there, and her grave has since been visited by the believers. Thus, what the Prophet foretold proved to be true. Also according to an authentic narration, he declared, "From the tribe of Thaqif, a liar will claim prophethood, and a bloodthirsty tyrant will appear. "With this, he gave tidings of the infamous Mukhtar who claimed prophethood, and of the barbarous Hajjaj who killed a hundred thousand people.

According to an authentic narration, he said, "Istanbul will be conquered, and blessed are the ruler and the troops that will conquer it. "He thus gave tidings that Istanbul would be conquered by Muslim hands, and that Mehmed the Conqueror would attain a high spiritual rank. His prediction again proved to be true. He also said, according to an authentic narration "Were religion to be hung on the Pleiades, men from Persia would reach and lay hold of it," indicating that matchless scholars and saints like Abu Hanifa would emerge from Iran. In addition, he foretold Imam Shafi'i, saying, "A scholar from Quraish who will fill all regions of the earth with learning."

According to an authentic narration he said "My nation will be divided into seventy-three sects, and only one among them will attain salvation He was asked, "Who are they?" He replied, "Those who follow me and my Companions," meaning the People of the Sunna and Community.

He also declared, "The Qadariyya are the Magians of this nation", foretelling the emergence of the Qadariyya sect that would be divided into different branches and reject Destiny.

He also foretold the Rafizis who would produce various offshoots. Again, according to an authentic narration, he said to Ali: "As was true of Jesus, two groups of people will perish on your account: one because of excessive love, the other because of excessive enmity. Christians, on account of their deep love for Jesus, transgressed the limits and called him 'the son of God,' Allah forbid! while the Jews, because of their, hostility, went to another extreme by denying his message and virtue. Similarly, some will also incur loss through their exaggerated affection toward you. For them is the insulting name Rafiziyya. And certain others will be excessively hostile to you. They are the Kharijites and the extremist partisans of the Umayyads who will be called Nasiba."

A QUESTION may be asked here: Affection for the Prophet's Family is a command of the Qur'an and is greatly encouraged by the Prophet. The affection of the Shi'is may therefore serve as an excuse for them, since deep affection may be likened to intoxication whis is a state of unawareness. Why,then, can the Shi'is, especially the Rafizis, not benefit from their affection, and why is their affection described by the Prophet as transgression?

ANSWER:

Love is of two kinds: the first means to love Ali, Hasan, Husain and the Prophet's Family on account of Allah SWA and His Messenger SAW. This kind of love augments the love of the Prophet, and becomes a means to love Allah Almighty. Thus, it is permissible, and its excess is not harmful or aggressive, nor does it call for reproach and hostility for others.

The second kind of love takes the means as the object. In it, one does not think of the Prophet, but devotes one's love to Ali on account of his bravery, and to Hasan and Husain on account of their greatness and lofty qualities no matter if one knows the Prophet or recognizes Allah SWA. This love is not a means of love for Allah SWA and His Messenger SAW; besides, when excessive, it results in censure and enmity for others. It is on account of this kind of love that such people withdrew themselves at a distance from Abu Bakr and Umar, and fell into loss. Their negative love, indeed, is the source of misfortune.

According to an authentic narration, Allah's Most Noble Messenger declared, "When Persian and Roman girls serve you, then calamity and misfortune will be with you, and your struggles will be among each other, with the wicked preying on the virtuous." Thirty years later, his predictions came true.

Again, according to an authentic narration, he declared, "-The fortress of Khaybar will be conquered by Ali's hand." As a miracle of his prophethood and beyond all expectation, the following day Ali ripped off the gate of the fortress of Khaybar, used it as a shield, and seized the fortress. When he threw it aside after the conquest, eight strong men-or, according to another version, forty tried to lift it, but could not do so.

Allah's Most Noble Messenger SAW also predicted the battle of Siffin between Ali and Mu'awiya, saying. "-the hour shall not come until two parties with a single claim fight each other."

He also declared that a group of rebels would kill Ammar. When Ammar was killed in the battle of Siffin. Ali cited this as a proof that Mu'auwiya's followers were rebellious; but Mu'awiya interpreted it differently, and also Amr b. As said. "The rebels are his murderers, not all of us."

Allah's Messenger SAW also said. "As long as Umar is alive, no mischief will emerge among you." And so it happened. Before accepting faith, Sahl b. Amr was once captured in a battle. Umar said to Allah's Messenger SAW. "Allow me to pull out his teeth, for he, with his eloquent speech, incited the polytheist Quraish to wage war against us." Allah's Messenger SAW replied. "It may be that he will assume a stance pleasing to you. O Umar." In fact, at the time of the Prophet's demise that caused panic and agitation, Sahl, with his well-known eloquence, calmed and comforted the Companions in Mecca with an address; while Abu Bakr in Medina, with his great firmness, was also giving a very important address to comfort the Companions. Surprisingly, the wordings of the two addresses show similarity to one another.

To Suraqa, the Prophet once said, "You will be wearing the two bracelets of the Chosroes." The Chosroes was destroyed during the caliphate of Umar. When the jewelry of the Chosroes arrived, Umar put the bracelets on Suraqa, saying. "Praise be to Allah Who took these of the Chosroes and put them on Suraqa." This confirmed the report of the Prophet.

Allah's Messenger SAW also declared. "Once the Chosroes is gone, there will be no other Chosroes." He once said to the envoy of the Chosroes "Chosroes has now been killed by his son Shirviya Parviz." Upon investigating and finding out that he had indeed been murdered at that very time, the envoy accepted Islam. The name of the envoy occurs in some narrations as Fayrouz.

According to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger once mentioned a secret letter that Hatib b. Baltaa had sent to the Quraish. He said to Ali and Miqdad, "There is a person at such and such a location bearing such and such a letter. Go and bring the letter." They did so, and the Prophet SAW summoned Hatib and asked him why he had done that. Hatib apologized, and the Prophet SAW pardoned him.

At the conquest of Mecca, as is also related in an authentic narration, Revered Bilal Habashi went up on the roof of Ka'ba and called the adhan (call to prayer) while Abu Sufyan, Attab b. Asid and Harith b. Hisham from among the leaders of Quraish were sitting together nearby. Attab said, "My father was fortunate enough not to witness this moment" Harith said, "Could Muhammad not have found someone other than this black crow to make the muadhdhin (caller to prayer)?" and bilittled Revered Bilal Habashi. Abu Sufyan said "I am afraid to say anything. I will not utter a thing. Even if nobody around, the rocks of this Batha [Mecca] will inform him. He [Muhammad] will come to know [whatever we would say]." Indeed, a little later Allah's Messenger SAW encountered them and repeated to them their conversation word for word. That very moment Attab and Harith became Muslims.

O wretched heretic! O heartless one who does not recognize the Prophet! See that two stubborn leaders of the Quraish came to believe upon hearing a single report of his from the Unseen, and imagine how your heart has been spoiled so that you are still not content with the thousands of miracles like these that came by tawatur. However, let us go back to our subject.

According to an authentic narration, Abbas was captured by the Companions in the battle of Badr. When he was asked for ransom, he said he did not have money. Allah's Most Noble Messenger SAW said to him, "You and your wife Umm Fadl hid that much money [he gave the exact amount] in such and such a place." Abbas confirmed this, saying, "This was a secret that only two of us knew," and became a Muslim.

Also according to an authentic narration, a dangerous Jewish sorcerer named Labid once concocted a strong and effective spell to annoy the Prophet. He wrapped hair and thread around a comb, bewitched it, and threw it into a well. Allah's Messenger SAW told his Companions including Ali to go and bring the spell in the well, which they did, locating it exactly as described. As they unwrapped the hair, the Prophet's discomfort lessened.

Again, according to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger SAW once gave the news of the awesome fate of an apostate to a group that included such important persons as Abu Hurayra and Hudhayfa, saving, "One among you will be in fire with a tooth bigger than Mount Uhud" Abu Hurayra related, "I was much afraid, as later only two remained from that group, including me. Finally, the other man was killed in the battle of Yamama as one of the followers of Musaylima." The truth of the Prophet's prediction was thus confirmed.

It is related through an authentic narration that Umayr and Safwan, before they became Muslims, once decided to kill the Prophet for a handsome reward that had been offered them. When Umayr arrived in Medina with this intention, Allah's Messenger summoned him, and, putting his hand on Umayr's chest, told him about that which he had planned with Safwan. Umayr answered, "Yes," and became a Muslim.

Like those mentioned above, many predictions that Allah's Messenger SAW gave from the Unseen have been recorded in the six best-known, authentic books of tradition, together with the chains of the narrators. As for the occurrences related in this work, they are definite in effect to the degree of tawatur, being related in Bukhari and Muslim (which are accepted as the most authentic sources after the Qur'an), Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, Musnad al-Hakim, Musnad al-Hamid, Ibn Hanbal and Dalail al-Bayhaqi.

Now then, O bewildered heretic, do not remain blind to this fact [that Muhammed (ASW) is the Messenger of Allah (SWT), a fact certainity of which is established firmly by the miracles he performed by the leave of Allah (SWT)], and do not attempt to explain it by simply saying, "Muhammad was a wise man"! Because the accurate informations of Muhammad (ASW) concerning the Unseen cannot be explained except in one of these two ways: you will either suppose that this blessed person has such a keen sight and such a broad genius that he sees and knows the past and the future and all the world; gazes upon the East, the West and the whole universe; and discovers that which happened in the past and that which is to happen in the future. Such a quality cannot be found in a human being, but if it is, it must be a wonder bestowed on him by the Creator of the universe, which would itself be the greatest of miracles. Or you will believe this blessed person to be an official instructed by a Being under Whose governing and observation everything stands, under Whose command are all ages and all species of the universe, in Whose ledger is everything recorded, so that He shows and communicates information to him whenever He wishes. Thus, Muhammad (ASW) instructs others as he himself is instructed by the Lord of Eternity. It is related in an authentic narration that when the Prophet (ASW) appointed Khalid b. Walid (RA) to fight against Ukaydir, the head of Dawmat al-Jandal, he informed Khalid that he would find Ukaydir on a wild ox hunt, and that he would be captured without resistance. Khalid captured Ukaydir in exactly this way. According to an authentic narration, when the Quraish hung up on the wall of Ka'ba a leaf on, which were written words against the Bani Hashim, the Prophet (ASW) said to them. "Worm have eaten the leaf, except the parts bearing the Names ot Allah." They examined the leaf to find it in the same condition as had been described. According to an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "There will be a big epidemic during the conquest of Jerusalem." When Jerusalem was conquered during the caliphate of Umar (RA), a widespread epidemic caused the death of about seventy thousand people in three days. Again, according to an authentic narration, the Prophet (ASW) predicted that Basra and Baghdad would come into existence, that the treasures of the world would enter Baghdad, and that Arabs would fight against the Turks and the people living on the shores of the Caspian Sea, many among whom would enter the fold of Islam and establish rule among Arabs. He said, "The Persians (nonarabs, acems) will almost predominate among you, consuming your booty and striking off your heads." He also said, "The ruin of my nation will be by the hands of the wicked ones from Quraish," suggesting the mischief of the wicked leaders of the Umayyads, such as Walid and Yazid. He furthermore informed that apostasy would take place in such certain areas as Yamama. In the famous battle of Khandaq, he declared "From now on, I will make assaults on the Quraish and their confederates, not they on me." This was also verified later.

According to an authentic narration, he (ASW) said a few months prior to his demise. "One of Allah's bondsmen has been given a choice, and he chose that which is with Allah."

About Zayd b. Suwahan (RA), he said, "One of his limbs will precede him to Paradise." In the battle of Nihawand, one of Zayd's hands was martyred and in effect reached heaven first.

The incidents we have so far mentioned concerning information relating to the Unseen comprise only one out of his ten different kinds of miracle. Yet of this kind alone, we have not even mentioned one tenth.

In addition to what is mentioned here, four general kinds of miracle concerning information about the Unseen have been dwelt upon in the TwentyFifth Word, which concerns the miraculousness of the Qur'an. If you consider them altogether, you will see how conclusive, indisputable, sound and brilliant is the evidence of his messengership (ASW). Indeed, anyone whose heart and mind are not corrupted will of a surety believe that Muhammad is the Messenger of, and receives knowledge from, a Glorious One Who is the Creator of everything and the Knower of the Unseen.
SEVENTH SIGN

[Miracles Related to the Abundance of Food and Water]:

We will give in this Sign a few examples from among the Prophet's Miracles (ASW) that relate to his effecting the increase in food and that are definite to the degree of tawatur in meaning. But before going into the subject, some introductory comments will be appropriate.

Introductory Comments:

Each of the following examples of miracles is transmitted through various -sometimes as many as sixteen- channels. Having occurred in the presence of large assemblies, they were narrated by many persons of truth and good repute from among those who were present. For example, from among the seventy men who were satiated with four handfuls of food, one relates the incident, and the others do not contradict him. Their silence, in fact, indicates their conformation. This is especially true for the truthful, straightforward and honest Companions of that era of truth and veracity, who would immediately contradict and reject anything false to the slightest degree. But the incidents that we will be citing were narrated by many, and when reported, the others who had witnessed them remained silent. Thus, each of these incidents has the certainty of tawatur in meaning.

Furthermore, books of history and the Prophet's (ASW) biography bear witness that, next to the preservation of the Qur'an and of its verses, the Companions concentrated all their efforts on the accurate preservation of knowledge concerning the deeds and utterances of Allah's Messenger (ASW), and especially those relating to miracles and the injunctions of the Sacred Law. They never neglected even the most insignificant act or state of his, as is confirmed by the books of tradition. During the era of the Prophet (ASW), his traditions concerning the details of the Sacred Law and his miracles were put into writing, in particular by the Seven Abdullahs -notably among them Abdullah b. Abbas, known as "the interpreter of the Qur'an," and Abdullah b. Amr b. As (RAE).

Some thirty to forty years later, thousands of researchers among the generation that followed the Companions recorded the miracles and traditions, which were later preserved and transmitted by the following thousands of discerning traditionists, including the Four imams.

Two hundred years after the Hijra, the authors of the six esteemed narration books, including Bukhari and Muslim, shouldered the duty of recording and preserving the traditions. In the meantime, many severe critics such as Ibn al-Jawzi identified the false reports that had been produced by heretics, or ignorant and careless people. And in later years the precious traditions were distinguished from fabrications and distortions by discerning scholars, such as Jalaladdin as-Suyuti who seventy times was honored in a waking state (yakaza) by the spiritual-presence and conversation of Allah's Messenger (ASW), as confirmed by those given spiritual sight (Ehl-i Keshf).

Thus did the miracles we will mention below come to us through numerous, safe and strong hands, may Allah (SWT) reward them abundantly. For this reason, one's mind should be free from the notion that these incidents could have been distorted or confused in any way from that time onward.

FIRST EXAMPLE of miracles concerning the Prophet's (ASW) inducing the increase of food through his blessing: The six accurate books of tradition, Bukhari and Muslim included, unanimously relate that during the feast on the occasion of the Prophet's marriage to Zaynab, Anas's mother, Umm Sulaym, prepared a dish by frying two handfuls of dates and sent it with Anas (RAE) to the Prophet. Allah's Messenger (ASW) told him, "Go and invite so and so [naming some persons], and also invite whoever you encounter on your way." Anas invited those named and those he met. About three hundred Companions came and filled the Prophet's (ASW) room and the anteroom. Then the Prophet (ASW) said, "Make circles of ten." He placed his blessed hand on that little amount of food, uttered supplications, and told them to start eating. All of them ate, being fully satisfied. Afterwards the Prophet (ASW) asked Anas to remove the food. Anas (RA) later related, "I could not tell if there was more of it when I set it down, or when I removed it."

SECOND EXAMPLE: Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (RA), the host of the Prophet (ASW), relates that when Allah's Messenger honored his home, he had made a meal for two, which would suffice the Prophet (ASW) and Abu Bakr (RA). But the Prophet (ASW) told him, "Invite thirty men from among the distinguished ones of the Ansar." Abu Ayyub (RA) says: "Thirty men came and ate. He then said, 'Invite sixty men,' which I did, and they also came and ate. The Prophet (ASW) said again, 'Invite seventy more.' I invited them; they came, and when they finished eating, there was still food left in the bowls. All who came embraced Islam, and took the oath of allegiance after witnessing that miracle. There were one hundred and eighty men who ate that food which was enough for two."

THIRD EXAMPLE: It is reported by various channels from Umar b. Khattab, Abu Hurayra, Salama b. Aqwa, Abu Amrat al-Ansari and others (RAE) that during a battle, they referred themselves to Allah's Messenger (ASW). He told them, "Gather whatever food is left in your bags." Everyone brought a few dates and put them on a mat. The largest amount anyone could contribute was four handfuls. Salama related, "I estimated the amount of the whole thing as the size of a goat lying down." Then Allah's Messenger announced, "Everyone may bring his dish." They rushed forward, and no one in the whole army remained with an empty dish. After all the dishes had been filled, there was even some left over. One of the Companions later said, "I realized from the way that that abundance was obtained that if the whole world had come , the food would have sufficed them all."

FOURTH EXAMPLE: As recorded in all the Six Books including Bukhari and Muslim, Abdurrahman b. Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) relates: "We, one hundred and thirty Companions, were with the Allah's Messenger on an expedition. Dough was prepared for the amount of about four handful, a goat was slaughtered and cooked, and its liver and kidneys were roasted. I swear by Allah that from that roasted meat [liver and kidneys] the Prophet gave a small piece to each and put the cooked meat into two large bowls. After we had all eaten until we were satisfied, there was still some left over, which I loaded onto a camel."

FIFTH EXAMPLE: As is recorded in the Six Books, Jabir al-Ansari (RA) related under an oath: "During the battle of Ahzab on the celebrated day of Khandaq, about a thousand people ate from four handfuls of rye bread and a young cooked goat; yet food was still left over. The food had been cooked in my dwelling, and after the one thousand people had left, the pot was still boiling with meat in it, and bread was being made from the dough; for the Prophet had wetted that dough and that pot with his blessed mouth, supplicating for abundance." Since this miracle of abundance was announced by Jabir with an oath while those thousand men (RAE) were present, it can be regarded as having been related by one thousand men.

SIXTH EXAMPLE: According to an authentic narration from Abu Talha (RA), the uncle of Anas who served the Prophet (ASW), the Prophet fed seventy to eighty men with a small amount of rye bread that Anas had brought under his arm. The Prophet (ASW) ordered, "Break the bread into small pieces," and prayed for abundance. Because there was not enough room for all people, only ten ate at a time, leaving all full and satisfied.

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: It is related as authentic in accurate books such as Shifa ash-Sharif and Muslim that Jabir al-Ansari (RA) narrates: "Once a man asked Allah's Messenger for food for his household. Allah's Messenger gave him a half load of barley. For a long time he and his family ate from it. When they noticed that it was not being exhausted, they measured it to see by what amount it had been reduced. After that, the blessing of abundance was gone, and the barley began to dwindle rapidly. Then the man came back to Allah's Messenger and related what happened. Allah's Messenger replied, "If you had not measured it, it would have sufficed you for a lifetime." "

EIGHT EXAMPLE: According to accurate books such as Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Bayhaqi and Shifa ash-Sharif, Samura b. Jundub (RA) relates that a bowl of meat was brought to Allah's Messenger (ASW). From morning to evening, many groups of men came and ate from it. Considering the explanation that we cited in the introduction to this section, this is not the narration of Samura alone, since Samura narrated this incident on behalf, and with the approval of, all those present.

NINTH EXAMPLE: It is also related by highly trusted and reliable researchers such as the author of Shifa ash-Sharif, Ibn Abi Shayba and Tabarani, that Allah's Messenger (ASW) ordered Abu Hurayra (RA), "Invite those poor Muhajirin who are using the hall of the Masjid as their home." They were, in fact, more than a hundred. Abu Hurayra searched and summoned them all. A plate full of food was placed in front of them, so that they ate as much as they wished. As they rose, the plate was as full as it had been when first placed before them. The fingermarks on the food were the only signs of their eating. This incident is related by Abu Hurayra not on his own, but in the name of the People of the Suffa and relying on their approval. Hence, the incident is as definite as if all the People of the Suffa had related it. Otherwise, is it ever possible that those men of truth and perfection would have remained silent and not contradicted it, had the narration been untrue?

TENTH EXAMPLE: According to an authentic narration by Ali (KAW), Allah's Messenger (ASW) once gathered the Bani Abdulmuttalib. They were about fourty, including some who would eat a young camel and drink a gallon of milk in one meal. Yet for them he had prepared only a handful of food. All ate and were satisfied, and the food remained just as it had been before. Later he brought milk in a wooden cup that would have been sufficient for only three or four persons. They all drank and were full. Here is a miracle of abundance as definite as the valor and loyalty of Ali (KAW)!

ELEVENTH EXAMPLE: According to an authentic narration, on the occasion of the marriage of Ali (KAW) to Fatima az-Zahra (RA), Allah's Messenger (ASW) ordered Bilal (RA), "Have bread made from a few handfuls of flour; also slaughter a young camel." Bilal relates: "I brought the food, and he put his hand over it for blessing. Later the Companions arrived in groups, ate, and left. From the remaining food, he sent a full bowl to each of his wives, saying that they should eat and feed from it whoever is nearby." Such a blessed abundance was indeed necessary for such a blessed marriage!

TWELFTH EXAMPLE: Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (RA) from his father Muhammed al-Baqir (RA), from his father Zayn al-Abidin (RA), from Ali (KAW) related that Fatima az-Zahra (RA) prepared some food that would be enough only for herself and Ali (KAW). She then sent Ali (KAW) to invite Allah's Messenger (ASW) to come and eat with them. Allah's Messenger (ASW) came, told them to send a dish of food to each of his wives, and then remaining food was spared for himself, Ali, Fatima and their children. Fatima (RA) says, "When we took away the pot, it was still full to the brim. By Allah's will, we ate from it for quite a long time." Why do you [the denier] not believe this miracle of abundance just as if you had witnessed it with your own eyes, since it comes through such a luminous and glorious line of narrators? Certainly, even Satan cannot dispute against this !

THIRTEENTH EXAMPLE: Veracious authorities, such as Abu Dawud, Ahmad b. Hanbal and Bayhaqi, narrated from Jarir, from Dukayn al-Ahmas b. Sa'id al-Muzayn, from Jarir and from Nu'man b. Muqarrin al-Ahmasi al-Muzayn, who, with six brothers, (RAE) was honored with being a Companion of the Prophet (ASW), the following incident that was originally related by Umar b. Khattab (RA) and transmitted by various channels: Allah's Messenger (ASW) once ordered Umar, "Give food and grain to the four hundred horsemen of the Ahmasi tribe for their journey." Umar (RA) replied, "O Messenger of Allah, all the provision put together is not more than the size of a young camel sitting down." The Prophet (ASW) said, "Give it to them." Out of a half load of dates, Umar gave them an amount enough for four hundred men. After he had given that amount to them, as he later related, everything was the same as before, without any decrease. This miracle of abundance took place in relation to four hundred men, especially to Umar (RA); these are the people supporting the narration, and their silence is but a confirmation of the report. Do not ignore these narrations because they are related by a few individuals only, for the conditions under which the incident took place provide it with the certainty of 'tawatur in meaning', even if it is reported by a single individual.

FOURTEENTH EXAMPLE: All the accurate books of tradition, Bukhari and Muslim included, narrate that Jabir's father died when he was heavily in debt to Jews. Jabir (RA) gave all his father's possessions to the creditors, but they did not accept them. The fruits that his orchard yielded were also not sufficient to defray his debt for many years. Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "Pick all the fruits in the orchard and heap them up." So they did. Allah's Messenger (ASW) walked about the pile of fruit and prayed, and then Jabir gave from the fruits the amount corresponding for his father's debt. What was left was as much as the annual yield of the orchard (according to another narration, it was equal to the amount he gave to the creditors). This astounded the creditor Jews greatly. Again, this manifest miracle of abundance is not the kind of information given by only Jabir (RA) and a few more narrators; its certainty is equivalent to that of 'tawatur in meaning', as it was related on behalf of many.

FIFTEENTH EXAMPLE: Various discerning researchers such as Tirmidhi and Bayhaqi transmitted through an authentic narration from Abu Hurayra (RA) that in a battle (the battle of Tabuk, according to another narration) the army ran out of food. Allah's Messenger (ASW) asked, "Is there anything at all ?" Abu Hurayra (RA) relates: "I said I had a few dates left in my bag [in one narration there were fifteen]. The Prophet told me to bring them, which I did, and he put his blessed hand in the bag, took out a handful of dates, and uttered prayers as he put them onto a plate. Then he called the men in groups of ten. After they had all eaten, he said, 'Eat what you brought, hold it, and do not turn it upside down.' I put my hand in the bag; there were in my hands as many dates as I had brought. Later, during the time of the Prophet (ASW), and also the time of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman (RAE), I ate from those dates." According to another narration, Abu Hurayra (RA) said, "I gave many loads of it for Allah's sake. Then, when Uthman (RA) was assassinated, the dates were plundered together with the container." Abu Hurayra (RA) was a constant and very important student and disciple at the Suffa -the school of the Teacher of the universe and the Pride of creation- in addition the Prophet (ASW) had prayed for the strength of his memory. The miracle of abundance that he related to have taken place in the battle of Tabuk, in the presence of a large number of people, should therefore be as sound and certain as the word of the whole army.

Some useful information from Narrators: Ansar: those of the Companions who hosted the migrants from Mecca in their homes in Medina. Muhajirin: those among the Companions who migrated together with the Prophet leaving their homes in Mecca, and settled in Medina. The people of the Suffa: those among the Muhajirin as described in the words of the Prophet cited above, who were using the hall of the Masjid (called suffa), who devoted their lives to the preservation and dissemination of the prophetic narrations, and whose livelihood was provided by the Prophet (ASW). They were so much occupied with their service that they would not even get married, and those who became married and thus left the group would immediately be replaced by other Companions.

SIXTEENTH EXAMPLE: Bukhari included, accurate books relate, through an authentic narration, that once Abu Hurayra (RA) was hungry, so he followed Allah's Messenger (ASW) into his home. There they saw that a cup of milk had been brought as a gift. The Prophet ASM said to him, "Call all the People of the Suffa." Abu Hurayra relates: "I said to myself, 'I could drink that whole container of milk myself !,' as I was most in need of it. But since it was the order of the Prophet, I fetched the People of the Suffa, who were more than a hundred. The Prophet told me to offer the milk to them. I gave the cup to each, one by one, and each drank until satisfied. At the end, the Prophet told me, 'The rest is for me and you.' As I drank, the Prophet kept telling me to drink more, until I said,' I swear by the Glorious One Who has sent you with the truth that I am too full to drink any more.' Then the Prophet drank the rest, invoking the name of Allah and thanking Him." Let it be blessed for him a hundred thousand times ! This manifest miracle of abundance, as pure, indubitable and sweet as milk itself, is related by all the six accurate books of tradition, above all by Imam Bukhari, who committed to memory five hundred thousand narrations. Moreover, it is narrated by a celebrated, loyal and brilliant student of the Prophet's (ASW) blessed school of Suffa , namely Abu Hurayra who also cited as witnesses -indeed represented- all the other students of Suffa (RAE). Therefore, for not regarding such a report as having the certainty of tawatur, either one's heart should be rotten, or one's brain be destroyed! Is it at all possible that such a truthful person as Abu Hurayra (RA), who devoted all his life to the narrations of the Prophet (ASW) and to the religion, and who heard and himself transmitted the prophetic narration; "Whoever knowingly tells a lie concerning me should prepare for his seat in hellfire," should have related an unfounded incident ? Or would not any error in his saying be rejected by the People of Suffa, and harm the accuracy of all the other traditions he had memorized? Allah forbid! O Allah (SWT): for the sake of blessings You have bestowed upon Your Most Noble Messenger, bestow the blessings of abundance upon the favors and nourishments with which You have provided us!

An Important Point: It is well known that once assembled together, weak things become strong. Once fine threads are twisted, they become a strong rope; once strong ropes are wound together, no one can break them. In this Seventh Sign, we presented only one miracle from among fifteen different kinds which related to the blessings of abundance, and the sixteen examples we have given constitute barely a fifteenth of this one kind. Furthermore, each of the examples mentioned is a proof on its own with enough strength to prove prophethood. Even if some of them -supposing the impossible- were to be regarded as weak, they could still not properly be called as such, since whatever is united with the strong also becomes strong. Once considered altogether, the sixteen examples given above constitute a great and strong miracle, with the strength, in effect, of a definite, indisputable tawatur. And, when this miracle is joined by fourteen other miracles of abundance that have not been mentioned, it manifests a supreme miracle that is as unbreakable as strong ropes. Now add this supreme miracle to the fourteen other kinds of miracle, and see what a definite, decisive and irrefutable proof they provide together for the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW)! Thus, the pillars of Muhammad's (ASW) prophethood, formed by such a unity, have the strength of a mountain. Now you can realize how unreasonable it is to regard this firm and sublime firmament as deficient or weak on account of doubts stemming from improper understandings. Certainly, those miracles concerning the blessings of abundance illustrate that Muhammad (ASW) is such an honored servant, and such a beloved envoy, of the Merciful and Munificent One Who provides his sustenance and creates the sustenance of all beings, that He changes His own custom for his sake and sends for him in case of need such banquets from the Unseen as He created from nothingness. As is known, the Arabian peninsula is a place of scarcity of water and agriculture; its people, therefore, and especially the Companions in the earliest age of Islam, were exposed to scarcity of water and agriculture; its people, therefore, and especially the Companions in the earliest age of Islam, were exposed to scarcity of food, in addition to lack of water that would arise quite frequently. Because of these prevailing conditions, the miracles of great importance were concerned with food and water. Rather than being direct miracles or evidences for the claim of prophethood, these wonders were responses to due needs as a Divine kindness, a gift, and a banquet provided by the Most Compassionate One, because those who witnessed such miracles were already convinced of the truth of the prophethood. Nonetheless, as miracles took place, their faith was augmented and became even more luminous.
EIGHT SIGN

[Miracles Concerning Water]

Introduction: It is known that when such events taking place among groups of people are related individually and not contradicted by others, this indicates the veracity of the reports. For by virtue of his nature, man is inclined to call a lie a lie. In particular, if the people in question were the Companions who were more intolerant of lies than anyone else, if the incidents concerned Allah's Messenger (SAM), and if the narrator was a renowned Companion, then certainly the narrator gives his report on behalf of all who witnessed the incident.

Furthermore, each of the miracles involving water that we will cite below was transmitted through various channels, entrusted by many Companions to thousands of discerning ones among the following generation, who in turn transmitted them to the authorities of the next century. They, too, with great care and respect, passed them into the safekeeping of the scholars of succeeding centuries. Thus the traditions have reached our time, passing through thousands of reliable hands in each century. In fact, the texts of traditions that were written at the time of the Prophet (ASW) were safely handed over to brilliant scholars of the science of narration such as Bukhari and Muslim, who, through punctilious examination and classification, collected the undoubtedly authentic traditions, presented and taught them to us. May Allah SWT reward them abundantly!

The running of water from the auspicious fingers of Allah's Messenger (ASW) and many men's drinking from it has therefore the certainty of tawatur. It was reported by a group of men whose agreement upon a lie is most improbable; besides, it recurred three times in the presence of three vast assemblies. A great many people of discernment, primarily Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Imam Shu'ayb and Qatada, declared, through definitely authentic narrations from well-known ones among the Companions, especially Anas (who served the Prophet), Jabir and Ibn Mas'ud, that abundant water had run from the fingers of the Prophet (ASW) and that a whole army had drunk from it (RAE). >From numerous narrations of this kind of miracle, we will cite here only nine examples.

FIRST EXAMPLE: Accurate books of tradition, in particular Bukhari and Muslim, report through an authentic narration from Anas: "About three hundred of us were together with Allah's Messenger in the place named Zawra'. He ordered us to perform ablution for the afternoon prayer, but we could not find water. He then told us to bring a little water, which we did, and he dipped his auspicious hands into it. I saw water running from his fingers like a fountain. His three hundred men performed ablution with that water and drank from it." Anas relates this incident in the name of three hundred men. Is it possible that those three hundred people should not have confirmed him, or that none of them should have repudiated him if they had not agreed with him?

SECOND EXAMPLE: As narrated in accurate books, in particular Bukhari and Muslim, Jabir b. Abdullah al-Ansari says: "We, fifteen hundred people, had become thirsty during the battle of Hudaibiya. Allah's Messenger performed ablution from a leather water bag called qirba and then dipped his hand into it. I saw that water was running out of the bag like a fountain. Fifteen hundred people drank from it and filled their water bags." Once Salim b. Abil-ja'd asked Jabir, "How many of you were there." He said, 'Water would have sufficed even if there had been a hundred thousand, but we were fifteen hundred." Since this decisive miracle was witnessed by fifteen hundred Companions of the Prophet, its informants in effect number fifteen hundred, for human nature has a tendency to reject lies. As for the Companions (RAE) of the Prophet (ASW), who sacrificed their tribes and persons, their fathers and mothers, their lives and all that they possessed for the sake of truth and veracity, they could not have remained silent in the face of a lie, especially in the light of the warning given by the narration, "Whoever knowingly tells a lie concerning me should prepare for his seat in hellfire." Since they remained silent concerning this report they accepted it, joined Jabir, and confirmed his words.

THIRD EXAMPLE: As related in the accurate books of narration, including Bukhari and Muslim, Jabir reported: "During the battle of Buwat, Allah's Messenger commanded, 'Call for ablution.' They said there was no water. He said, 'Then try to find a little.' We fetched a very small amount of water. He kept his hand over the surface of the water while reciting something that I could not hear, and then commanded, 'Bring the big trough of the caravan.' They brought it to me, and I placed it in front of Allah's Messenger. He put his hands in the trough and opened his fingers, while I poured that very small amount of water onto his auspicious hands, I saw that abundant water ran from his blessed fingers and filled the trough. Then I summoned those who needed water. When they had all performed ablution with that water and drunk from it, I told Allah's Messenger that there was no one else. He lifted his hands, leaving the trough full to the brim This miracle of the Prophet has the certainty of tawatur in meaning, because Jabir (RA) announces it on behalf of the others. As he occupied the first place in the incident in serving the Prophet, it was his right to speak first. However, at the same time Ibn Mas'ud says, "I saw that water was running like a fountain from the fingers of the Prophet." If a truthful and well-known group of the Companions of the Prophet including Anas, Jabir and Ibn Mas'ud says, "We have seen," is it possible that they might not have seen? When these three reports are joined together, they prove the incidence of the running of water from the fingers of the Prophet (ASW) to be explicit tawatur. Put these three examples together and see how sound and definite a miracle this is. Indeed, even Moses' (AS) making water run from twelve different points of a stone cannot be equivalent to water's running from the ten fingers of Muhammad (ASW), for water might gush out of a stone -since examples of this can be found among ordinary events- but there is no parallel for water running in abundance from flesh and bone !

FOURTH EXAMPLE: Imam Malik, in his well-known book 'Muwatta', relates through Mu'adh b. Jabal -a famous Companion: "During the battle of Tabuk, we found a spring that was barely running in the thickness of a thin piece of string. Allah's Messenger ordered, 'Collect a little water.' They put a little water into his palms. Allah's Messenger washed his face and his hands with the water, which he then put in the spring. Suddenly the outlet of the spring widened and water began to well out, which sufficed the whole army." Another informant, Ibn Ishaq, reports: 'The fountain ran with a noise under the earth like that of thunder. Allah's Messenger said to Mu'adh, 'You will see, if your lifetime suffices, that this miraculous water will transform these places into gardens.' And so it did."

FIFTH EXAMPLE: Bukhari from al-Bara', Muslim from Salama b. Aqwa', and other authentic books from other informants, unanimously relate: "During the battle of Hudaibiya, we found a well. There were four hundred of us, and the water was barely sufficient for fifty people. We drew out all the water and left nothing in the well. Then came Allah's Messenger, sat down beside the well, and asked for a bucketful of water, which we gave him, and he put some wetness from his auspicious mouth into the bucket while praying, and then poured the water into the well. Water rose and gushed at once, until the well brimmed. The whole army and their animals drank from the water until they were satiated; they also filled up their water bags."

SIXTH EXAMPLE: Accurate books, including those of brilliant authorities in the science of narration such as Ibn Jabir at-Tabari, relate through an authentic narration from Abu Qatada: "We were going for help, as the commanders had been martyred in the battle of Muta. I had a water bag with me. Allah's Messenger commanded, 'Keep your water bag carefully; there will be great need for it.' Soonafter thirst prevailed. We were seventy-two [three hundred, according to Tabari]. Allah's Messenger said, 'Bring me your water bag.' I did, he took the bag and brought its brim to his lips. I do not know whether he blew into it or not. Then seventy-two men came and drank out of the bag and filled their bags. When I had it back, it was full to the brim just as it had been before." Now, look at this decisive miracle of Muhammad (ASW), and say, "O Allah ! Bestow upon him peace and blessings as many as there are drops of water!"

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: Accurate books of narration, including above all Bukhari and Muslim, narrate through Imran b. Husain: 'In a battle, we, together with Allah's Messenger, ran out of water. He said to me and Ali, 'There is a woman in such and such a place, riding her beast that is laden with two water bags. Go and fetch her.' Ali and I went to find her in exactly the same place as described, and brought her to the Prophet. He ordered, 'Pour a little water into a vessel,' which we did, and he prayed for blessing. He then commanded that everyone should come to fill his water bag. All the people came, drank, and filled their bags. Afterwards he gave an order to collect something for the woman, and they filled her skirt." lmran says, 'I imagined that the two water bags were constantly filling. Allah's Messenger told the woman, 'You can go now. We did not take water from you; rather Allah gave us from His treasure.'"

EIGHT EXAMPLE: Narration scholars, primarily Ibn Huzam in his Sahih, report from Umar: "We ran out of water during the battle of Tabuk. Some of us had to slaughter their camels to drink what was inside. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq requested that Allah's Messenger should pray. Allah's Messenger raised his hands, and hardly had he lowered them when the clouds gathered and heavy rain began to fall. After we had filled our vessels, the clouds withdrew immediately. In fact, it was only our area that received the rain; it did not fall outside of it." Thus, no chance was involved in the incident; it was purely a miracle of Muhammad (ASW).

NINTH EXAMPLE: Related through an authentic narration from Amr b. Shu'ayb, who was the grandson of Abdullah b. Amr b. As, and upon whom the Four Imams relied in explaining narrations: 'Before his prophethood, Allah's Messenger once came by camel to the place called DhulHijaz, near Arafat, with his uncle Abu Talib. Abu Talib said he was thirsty. Allah's Messenger dismounted from the camel and struck the ground with his foot, so that water welled out and Abu Talib drank of it." One of the researchers, however, stated that this incident is to be considered in the category of irhasat [*] because it occurred before his prophethood; but it can also be considered a wonder of his, because for a thousand years later the spring of Arafat was found at the same place. Similar to these nine examples, ninety different narrations -if not ninety instances- have reported miracles concerning water. The first seven examples are as sound and definite in meaning as tawatur.

[*] Irhasat: The miraculous events that took place before the Prophethood of Muhammad ASW like the downfall of Kisra Palace, the stopping of the fire of the fire-worshippers, the downfall of the idles in Ka'ba.

Although the informants which support the last two narrations are not numerous and do not form a strong chain, authentic books of tradition, including Beyhaqi and al-Hakim, report another miracle as narrated by Umar supporting and confirming the incident mentioned in the eighth example: 'Umar requested from the Messenger of Allah that he should pray for rain. Allah's Messenger raised his hands, and at the same moment clouds gathered, rain came and poured down sufficient water for the army. Then the clouds went away.' The clouds seemed to have been charged with the delivery of water to the army; they came and delivered it, and then went away. Just as this narration proves the eighth example, Ibn al-Jawzi, an exacting researcher who rejected a great many authentic traditions describing them as false, says, "This event took place during the battle of Badr, which was made clear by the verse,
"And He caused rain to descend on you from heaven to clean you therewith." [Al Qur'an 8:11]. Since this verse describes the incident, there is no room for doubt about it. Besides, the pouring down of rain as a result of the prayer of the Prophet (ASW) even before he lowered his hands occurred many times and became a tawatur on its own. It is also reported through tawatur that there were times when he raised his hands while in the pulpit, and rain began before he had lowered them.
NINTH SIGN

[Miracles Related to Trees]:

One of the various kinds of miracles of Allah's Messenger (ASW) is that trees, like human beings, obeyed his orders and came near him. This miracle is also mutawatir in meaning, like that of water running from his fingers; there are numerous examples of it, and it has been reported in various channels. In fact, trees leaving their places and coming toward him can be considered explicit tawatur, because the best-known men among the Companions of the Prophet such as Ali, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn Umar, Ya'la b. Murra, Jabir, Anas b. Malik, Burayda, Usama b. Zayd and Ghaylan b. Salama (RAE) reported the same miracle with certainty. Hundreds of scholars among the generation that followed the Companions received their reports from each of them, each with a different channel, and transmitted them to us in the shape of multiple tawatur. This miracle has therefore, decisively and indisputably, the certainty of tawatur in meaning. We will now cite only a few examples of this great miracle, although it was repeated many times.

FIRST EXAMPLE: Narrated by Ibn Maja, adDarimi and Bayhaqi from Anas b. Malik and Ali, and by Bazzaz and Bayhaqi from Umar: The Messenger of Allah was disturbed at the denial of unbelievers. He prayed, "O Lord! Give me a sign, so that I will no longer see anyone who contradicts me." According to Anas, Gabriel was also present, upon whose instruction Allah's Messenger called to a tree that was at the side of the valley. It came near to him. He then told the tree to go back; it went back and settled down in its place.

SECOND EXAMPLE: In Shifa ash-Sharif, Qadi lyad, the foremost scholar of the Maghrib, relates from Abdullah b. Umar through an exalted and sound chain of narrators: "In the course of an expedition, a Beduin came to Allah's Messenger. The Messenger asked him, 'Where are you going?' He said, 'To my family.' Allah's Messenger asked, 'Don't you want something better than that?' The Beduin said, 'What is it?' Allah's Messenger replied, 'To bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, with no partner, and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.' The Beduin asked again, 'Who is your witness to your testimony?' The Messenger said, 'This tree beside the valley will bear witness.' " Ibn Umar says, "The tree cleft the earth shaking and came near to Allah's Messenger. He asked the tree three times to testify; each time it testified to his truthfulness. When Allah's Messenger ordered, it went back and settled down in its place." According to the authentic narration of Ibn Sahib al-Aslami, Burayda reports: "When we were together with Allah's Messenger on an expedition, a Beduin came and asked for a miracle. Allah's Messenger said, 'Tell that tree that Allah's Messenger summons her.' Then, when the Prophet pointed at a tree, it swayed and brought itself out with its roots, came to the presence of the Prophet saying, 'Peace be on you, O Messenger of Allah !' The Beduin said, 'Now let it go to its place again.' He commanded and it went. Then the Bediun said 'Allow me to prostrate myself before you.' The Messenger replied, 'No one is permitted to do that.' The Bediun said, 'Then I will kiss your hands and feet.' That the Prophet permitted."

THIRD EXAMPLE: Accurate books of narration, including Muslim, report from Jabir: 'We were together with the Messenger of Allah on an expedition when he searched for a place to answer the call of nature, but there was not a single hidden place. He then went to two trees, pulled one of them holding its branches, brought it near to the other. The tree was like an obedient camel being pulled by its halter. He addressed them, 'Join together over me with the permission of Allah.' The two trees joined together and formed a screen. After relieving himself behind them, he ordered them to go back, and they went back to their places." According to another narration Jabir says, 'The Messenger commanded me, 'Tell those trees to join together for the relief of Allah's Messenger.' I told them to do so, and they did. A little later Allah's Messenger came when I was waiting for him. He nodded to the right and to the left, and the two trees went back to their places.

FOURTH EXAMPLE: Usama b. Zayd, one of the brave commanders and servants of Allah's Messenger, reports in an authentic narration: 'We were together with Allah's Messenger on an expedition. No private place could be found for answering the call of nature. He asked, 'Can you see any trees or rocks?' 'Yes, I can,' I said. He commanded, 'Speak to them, and tell them to join together for the relief of Allah's Messenger; also tell the rocks to gather as a wall. Allah's Messenger, after relieving himself, commanded again, 'Tell them to separate.' I swear by Glorious Allah in whose hand is my soul that tree and the rocks separated and went back to their places." These two incidents that were narrated by Jabir b. Usama were also reported by Ya'la b. Murra, Ghailan b. Salama ath-Thaqafi and Ibn Mas'ud, referring to the battle of Hunayn.

Translator's Note: Call of nature was a necessity for the Messenger of Allah (ASW) as he was made human. He did share these kinds of humanly states since he was an complete exemplar, teacher, and leader of all humanity. We should realize one point here: Allah SWT would have not let his Messenger to experience such uncomfortable urgency which to some might sound improper for the Messenger ASW. However, instead, the importance of privacy and requirement of a hidden-place for this human need was shown by being subject to Prophets' miracle. Yes, without the prophets (AS) we know nothing !

FIFTH EXAMPLE: Reported by Imam Ibn Fawraq, known as 'the foremost scholar of his time' and 'Shafi'i the Second' for his excellence in interpretation: "Allah's Messenger felt sleepy while travelling on horseback one night during the battle of Ta'if. On his way, a lote tree appeared in front of him. To make the way for him and not to hurt his horse, the tree split in two, and Allah's Messenger passed between the two parts of the tree on the back of his horse." That tree has remained as two trunks in that honored position up to our time.

SIXTH EXAMPLE: Ya'la b. Murra relates in an authentic narration: "During an expedition, a tree (called either talha or samura) came, walked around Allah's Messenger as if circumambulating, and went back to its place. Allah's Messenger said, 'It asked for Allah's permission to salute me (i.e., to give salam to me.)' ."

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: Narration scholars report from Ibn Mas'ud through an authentic narration: "When the jinn of Nusaybin came to Batn an-Nakhl to be converted to Islam, a tree informed the Messenger of their coming." Concerning this incident, Imam Mujahid also reports from Ibn Mas'ud, "When the jinn asked for a proof of his prophethood, Allah's Messenger gave an order to the tree so that it came to him and went back again." That single miracle sufficed the jinn. If a man who has heard of thousands of miracles like these does not believe, will he not be more of a devil than those who were described by the jinn as "SOME FOOLISH ONES AMONG US" ? [QUR'AN 72:4]

EIGHTH EXAMPLE: Tirmidhi reports from Ibn Abbas through an authentic narration: "The Messenger of Allah asked a Beduin, 'Will you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah, if a branch of that tree comes to me when I call to it?' 'Yes,' he replied, and Allah's Messenger called to the branch. It broke off and jumped over near to him. It again jumped back to the tree when he told it to do so." Like these eight examples, there are many others related through various chains of transmission. Seven or eight strands of rope form a strong cable when they come together. Similarly, those miracles that were reported on the authority of the best-known Companions in various chains certainly have the strength of tawatur in meaning, or even in reality. In fact, they take on the form of tawatur when passed on by the Companions to the following generation. In particular, the accurate books of narration such as Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hibban and Tirmidhi have made and kept the chain leading back to the age of the Prophet (ASW) so sound that reading a narration, say in Bukhari, is equivalent to hearing it directly from the Companions. If trees, as seen in these examples, recognize the Prophet (ASW), testify to his messengership, visit and salute him, and obey his orders; and those heartless and brainless beings who call themselves human beings do not know and believe in him, will they not be more trifling than a piece of wood and worthy of hellfire?
TENTH SIGN:

[Reenforcing Miracles Concerning Trees]

One other narration reinforcing the miracles related to trees and reported in the form of tawatur is the miracle of the moaning of the pole. The pole's moaning in the Prophet's mosque before a vast crowd because of its temporary separation from the Prophet (ASW) both confirms and consolidates the instances of miracles that relate to trees because the pole was also made of wood and was hence of the same substance as a tree. This miracle is itself mutawatir whereas the others are mutawatir as a group in one class, but most of them individually or separately do not attain the degree of tawatur. Allah's Messenger (ASW) used to lean against a pole made from a palm tree when he delivered a sermon. But after the pulpit had been built, he began to deliver sermons from the pulpit. Once, while he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit, the whole audience heard the pole moaning like a camel. Only when the Messenger (ASW) came and consoled it by putting his hand on it, did the pole stop moaning. This miracle is widely known and its narration attains the degree of tawatur, for it was transmitted by an illustrious group of the Companions in fifteen different ways, and was narrated by hundreds of authorities of succeeding centuries. Eminent scholars among the Companions of the Prophet (ASW) and leading narration scholars such as Anas b. Malik and Jabir b. Abdullah al-Ansari (both servants of the Prophet ASW), Abdullah b. Umar, Abdullah b. Abbas, Sahl b. Sa'd, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Ubayy b. Ka'b, Burayda, and the Mother of the Believers, Umm Salama, (RAE) reported this miracle to the nation of the Prophet (ASW), each of them by a different channel. The accurate books of prophetic narrations, above all Bukhari and Muslim, also transmitted this great mutawatir miracle to the following centuries through different chains of transmission. As related in the report of Jabir, before the pulpit of the mosque was built the Messenger (ASW) used to lean against the pole called "palm-trunk" when delivering a sermon. When he started his sermon from the pulpit, the pole, because of separation from him, began to moan like a pregnant camel. Anas says, "It moaned like a water buffalo and caused the mosque to tremble." Sahl b. Sa'd says, "After this incident, weeping increased among people." Ubayy b. Ka'b says, "It wept so much that it split." According to another report, the Messenger (ASW) said, "Its weeping is because of separation from the recitation of the Names of Allah that are uttered in the sermon." Still another narration reports that Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "If I had not embraced and consoled it, it would have cried until the Doomsday at its separation from the Messenger of Allah." Burayda reports, "When the pole began to moan, Allah's Messenger put his hand on it and said, 'If you wish, I will restore you to the grove whence you were taken; your roots will grow, your stature flourish, and your fruits will be renewed. Or if you wish, I will plant you in Paradise, and Allah's friends, the salihin, will eat of your fruit.' He then listened to it. The people behind Allah's Messenger could hear the pole as it spoke, saying, 'Plant me in Paradise where there is no decay, so that the beloved ones of Allah will eat of my fruit.' Allah's Messenger said, 'I will,' and added, 'It has preferred the world of eternity to that of transience.'" Abu Ishaq Isfarani, one of the great authorities on Islam, reports, "Allah's Messenger did not go to the pole, but it came to him upon his order. He then ordered it to go back, which it did." Ubayy b. Ka'b says, "After this marvellous incident, the Messenger ordered that the pole should be kept under the pulpit. It was put under the pulpit and kept there until the pole was demolished for the restoration of the mosque." Then Ubayy b. Ka'b took it and kept it until it decayed. The famous scholar Hasan al-Basri would weep whenever he related this marvellous miracle to his students and would say, "A piece of wood demonstrates such love and longing for the Messenger of Allah (SWA). You need to feel this love more than a piece of wood does." As for us, we say "Yes, and loving him can be achieved by obedience to his luminous Sunna and his illustrious Sacred Law."

An Important Question: Why were the other miracles that were demonstrated in relation to food and water -fully satisfying a thousand men with four handfuls of food in the battle of Khandaq, and another thousand men with water running from the auspicious fingers of the Prophet (ASW)- not reported as widely and in as many ways as the miracle of the moaning of the pole, although the former two miracles occurred in the presence of larger crowds?

Answer Miracles are of two kinds. Some of them become manifest in the hands of the Prophet (ASW) to assert his messengership. The moaning of the pole is of this kind; it was demonstrated as a proof of his messengership. Its purpose was to increase the belief of the believers, to urge hypocrites to sincerity, and to convert unbelievers to faith. This is why everyone, learned or unlearned, witnessed it, and great attention was paid to its broadcasting. Those miracles related to food and water, however, were wonders rather than miracles, or favors rather than wonders, or even more than favors; they were banquets mercifully provided because of need. Although they were miracles and evidences for the cause of messengership, their real significance was that Allah Almighty, out of a little food, provided a banquet for an army of a thousand men suffering from hunger, in the same way that He creates thousands of dates from a single pit; and that He satisfied a thirsty army with abundant water from the fingers of the greatest commander (ASW). For this reason, each instance of the miracles concerning food and water individually does not attain the degree of the miracle of the moaning of the pole. However, the various examples of these two kinds of miracles are, in their entirety, numerous and strong as mutawatir as the moaning of the pole. Another reason for the wider broadcasting of the latter miracle was that in the former case each individual present could see only the effects of the miracle (concerning him only), but not the overall blessing of the food and the running of water from the fingers of the Prophet (ASW), while the moaning of the pole could be heard by everyone.

It May be Asked: Each act and mode of behavior of the Prophet (ASW) was recorded and transmitted by his Companions with extreme care. Such great miracles should therefore have been narrated in a hundred chains of transmission. Why, then, were they related only in ten or twenty chains? And why did Abu Bakr and Umar narrate few traditions, while Anas, Jabir and Abu Hurayra reported many (RAE)?

Answer: The answer to the first part of the question has been given in the Third Essential of the Fourth Sign. Regarding the second part, just as a patient goes to a doctor to be healed, mathematicians are consulted on mathematical problems, and religious questions are asked of a mufti, and so on so forth, some scholars among the Companions of the Prophet (ASW) were entrusted with instructing succeeding generations in the narrations, devoting their entire lives to the study of narrations. For example, Abu Hurayra (RA) devoted himself to the memorization of narrations, while Umar (RA) was occupied with political matters and the problems of the Caliphate. Umar (RA) therefore narrated very few narrations, having confidence in others such as Abu Hurayra, Anas and Jabir, (RAE) to impart narrations to the umma. There remains the fact that when a well-known man from among the truthful, sincere, honest and trusted Companions (RAE) reports an incident through one chain, this is regarded as sufficient, and another narration by a different person is not needed. This is why some significant events were transmitted through only one or two channels.
AnchorTHE ELEVENTH SIGN

< [Miracles Concerning Rocks]:

As the Tenth Sign explained miracles of the Prophet (ASW) related to trees, this Eleventh Sign will describe how solid objects, rocks, and mountains also were subject to prophetic miracles. Here we cite a few out of numerous instances.

FIRST EXAMPLE: Qadi lyad (RA) in his Shifa ash-Sharif, with a celebrated chain of narrators, and great imams like Bukhari report through an authentic narration from Ibn Mas'ud, the servant of the Prophet (ASW), "We could hear food glorifying Allah as we ate with the Messenger."

SECOND EXAMPLE: Accurate books of narration report from Anas (RA) through an authentic narration: "We were next to the Messenger when he took small stones in his palm and they began to praise Allah. He put them in Abu Bakr's palm; they continued reciting." Abu Dharr al-Ghifari says, "He then put them in Umar's hand; they continued. He put them on the ground; they stopped. He again took them and put them in Uthman's palm, and they started." Anas and Abu Dharr (RAE) say, "He put them in our hands, and they stopped."

THIRD EXAMPLE: Reported through authentic narrations from Ali, Jabir, and Aisha as-Siddiqa (RAE): "Rocks and mountains would say to Allah's Messenger, 'Peace be on you, O Messenger of Allah!'" Ali (KAW) says, "Whenever we went for a walk in the early times of his prophethood, trees and rocks would say, "'Peace be onto you, O Messenger of Allah!' as they appeared in front of us." Jabir says, "When Allah's Messenger met with trees and rocks, they would prostrate themselves, and say, 'Peace be on you, O Messenger of Allah!'" According to another report from Jabir, Allah's Messenger said, "I know a rock that offers me greeting." Some said that the sacred black stone in Ka'ba was meant by these words of the Prophet (ASW). According to a narration transmitted on the authority of Aisha (RA), the Messenger of Allah (ASW) said, "Since Gabriel brought me the message, it began to happen that I would never pass by a rock or a tree without it saying,'Peace be upon you, 0 Messenger of Allah!'"

FOURTH EXAMPLE: Reported through an authentic narration from Abbas (RA): Allah's Messenger covered Abbas and his four sons (Abdullah, Ubaydullah, Fadl and Qusam) with a piece of cloth named mula'at, praying, "O my Lord, this is my uncle; protect through me these, his sons and veil them from the fire as I veil them with this cloth." The roof, the door, and the walls of the house joined this prayer at once, saying, "Amen, amen!"

FIFTH EXAMPLE: Accurate books, notably Bukhari, Ibn Hibban, Dawud and Tirmidhi, unanimously report from Anas, Abu Hurayra, Uthman b. Affan and Sa'd b. Zayd, from among the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise (RAE): "The Messenger of Allah, together with Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, climbed Mount Uhud. The mountain, either because of their majesty or because of its joy, trembled. Allah's Messenger said, 'Steady! For on you are a prophet, a siddiq and two martyrs.'" This narration is a report from the Unseen, indicating that Umar and Uthman (RAE) would become martyrs. As a supplement to this tradition, it is also reported that when Allah's Messenger (ASW) migrated from Mecca being pursued by unbelievers, he climbed the mountain called Sabir. The mountain said, "Leave me, O Messenger of Allah; I am afraid that Allah will punish me if they smite you on me." Then Mount Hira called to him, "Come to me, O Messenger of Allah!" For this reason, men of intuition feel fear on Sabir, and a sense of safety on Hira. As can be understood from this example, those vast mountains are not idle and useless. They are individual worshipers and glorifiers, performing their duties; they know the Prophet (ASW) and love him.

SIXTH EXAMPLE: Reported through an authentic narration from Abdullah b. Umar (RA): "While delivering a sermon at the pulpit, Allah's Messenger recited the verse,
"No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: on the day of Judgment the whole of earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand," and said,

'Allah the Almighty is glorifying Himself; He says:
"I am the Almighty, I am the Almighty, I am the Greatest and Most Exalted."'

As he said this, the pulpit trembled so much that we feared that Allah's Messenger would fall down."

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: Reported through authentic narrations from Ibn Abbas, known as "the Scholar of the Ummah" and "the Inter-preter of the Qur'an," and Ibn Mas'ud, the servant of the Prophet (ASW) and a great scholar among his Companions: "There were 360 idols around the Ka'ba, fixed with lead to the stone. On the day of the conquest of Mecca, Allah's Messenger pointed at them one by one with a curved stick, saying,
"Truth has arrived and falsehood perished; verily falsehood is ever bound to perish."[Al-Qur'an 17:81] Whichever one he pointed to, it fell down. If he pointed to the face of the idol, it fell backwards; otherwise it fell on its face. In the end they all toppled over."

EIGHT EXAMPLE: The famous story of the monk Bahira. Before the beginning of his prophethood, Allah's Messenger went to Damascus for business with his uncle Abu Talib and some members of Quraish. They stopped when they came near to the church of the monk Bahira. As they sat down, Bahira, who never had social relations with other people, came out unexpectedly. When he saw Muhammad the Trustworthy (ASW) among them, he told the convoy, "This is the chief of the creation; he will be a prophet." The Quraish asked, "How is it that?" The blessed monk replied, "I saw a little cloud over the caravan as you were coming. When you sat down, the cloud moved toward his side and cast its shadow over him. I also saw trees and rocks prostrate themselves before him, which they do only before prophets."

There are at least eighty examples of the same kind as these eight instances. When they come together, these eight instances form such a chain that no doubt can break. Taken as a whole, this sort of miracle, i.e. the speaking of inanimate objects in order to testify to the prophethood, expresses the same certainty as does tawatur in meaning. Each example receives some strength from the whole, which is more than its own strength. Yes, a thin pillar is fortified when it comes together with thick columns, and a weak man, when joined to an army, receives such strength and authority that he can challenge even a thousand men.
THE TWELVTH SIGN:

The following three significant examples are connected to THE ELEVENTH SIGN [Miracles Concerning Rocks].

FIRST EXAMPLE:
"When you threw, it was not your act, but Allah's." [Al Qur'an 8:17]

As established through the researches of all interpreters and the reports of all narration scholars, this verse refers to the following incident. At the battle of Badr, Allah's Messenger (ASW) threw a handful of earth and small stones at the army of the unbelievers, saying, 'May your faces be deformed!" That handful of earth penetrated into the eyes of each unbeliever, as the words 'May your faces be deformed!" was heard by every one of them; they became preoccupied with the dust in their eyes and had to retreat, although they were the ones attacking. Narration scholars, including -above all- Muslim, report that at the battle of Hunayn, as well as at Badr, Allah's Messenger (ASW) again threw a handful of earth at the enemy, saying, 'May your faces be deformed!" By Allah's permission, each one of them was hit with a handful of earth and had to retreat, being preoccupied with the earth in his eyes. As these extraordinary incidents are beyond the ability of man and of material causes, the Qur'an declares,
"When you threw, it was not your act, but Allah's." [Al Qur'an 8:17] SECOND EXAMPLE: Narrated in accurate books of narration, primarily Bukhari and Muslim: During the battle of Khaybar, a Jewess roasted a goat and poisoned it with a very strong poison, and then sent it to the Messenger of Allah (ASW). When his Companions began to eat it, the Prophet (ASW) suddenly said, "Raise your hands! It tells me that it is poisoned." Everyone withdrew from the table. But Bishr b. al-Baira', who had eaten only a morsel of it, died from the effect of the poison. Allah's Messenger (ASW) sent for the Jewess, whose name was Zaynab, and asked her why she had done so. The inauspicious woman said, "I considered that if you were a prophet it would not harm you; and if you were a king, I would save the people from you." According to some narrations, the Prophet (AW) did not have her put to death; according to others, he did. Some researchers have concluded that he did not have her put to death, but left her to the family of Bishr to be killed (i.e., according to the Law of Reciprocity (Kisas) He left the decision to the family). Now examine a few points that demonstrate the miraculousness of this extraordinary incident:

FIRSTAccording to one narration, some Companions also heard the goat speaking.

SECONDAccording to another report, Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "Say Bismillah (in Allah's Name), then eat; poison will not affect you." Although Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani does not accept this report, others do.

THIRDAlthough those treacherous Jews tried to harm Allah's Messenger (ASW) and his close Companions, the warning of the Prophet (ASW) proved true, and their plot was uncovered and brought to naught. And when that blessed being, the Prophet (ASW), from whom the Companions never heard an untrue statement, said, ''This goat tells me that..., " everyone believed in him with such a sure conviction that as if they themselves had heard the goat.

THIRD EXAMPLE:Three instances of another miracle that resembles the white hand and the staff of Moses.

FIRST Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (RA), after amending, reports from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (RA): Allah's Messenger gave Qatada b. an-Nu'man (RA) a stick on a dark, rainy night, saying, ''This stick will light up your surroundings. When you arrive home, you will see a black shadow, which will be Satan. Drive him away." Qatada went home with the stick emitting light like the white hand of Moses. There he saw the described person and drove him away.

 SECONDUkkasha b. Muhassin al-Asadi (RA) had his sword broken while fighting in the great battle of Badr, which was itself a source of wonders. Allah's Messenger (ASW) gave him a stick in place of his broken' sword and told him to fight with it. All at once, by Allah's permission, the stick became a long, white sword. He fought with it, and kept it on him until he was martyred at the battle of al-Yamama. This incident is certain, because, throughout his lifetime, he was proud of this sword, and the sword was widely known as "the aid."

THIRDAmended and reported by Ibn Abd alBarr (RA), a celebrated scholar known as "the Scholar of the Century ": At the battle of Uhud, Abdullah b. Jahsh (RA), a cousin of Allah's Messenger (ASW), had his sword broken. Allah's Messenger (ASW) gave him a stick, which turned in his hands into a sword. He fought with it, and after the battle, it remained a sword as a product of miracle. Ibn Sayyid an-Nas (RA) reports that Abdullah some time later sold it to a man called Bugha at-Turki for two hundred liras. Thus these two swords were the results of miracles like the staff of Moses (AS). Although the staff of Moses (AS) did not retain its miraculous properties after the death of Moses (AS), these miraculously produced swords remained as swords.
THIRTEENTH SIGN:

[Miracles related to the healing of the ill].

Another kind of miracle of Muhammad (ASW), a mutawatir one with various examples, is the healing of ill and wounded people by his auspicious breath. This kind of miracle of the Prophet (ASW) is, as a whole, mutawatir in meaning. Certain single events of this kind are also regarded as mutawatir in meaning; as for the rest, although they are separate incidents, they have been amended and related by discerning leaders of the science of prophetic narration. Out of many, we will mention here only a few examples of this kind.

FIRST EXAMPLE:As reported in Shifa ash-Sharif of Qadi lyad (RA) by numerous channels and with an exalted chain of transmitters from Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas (RA, one of the ten Companions given the glad tidings of Paradise, a servant and a military commander of the Prophet (ASW), the commander-in-chief of the Muslim army during the reing of Umar (RA), and the conqueror of Iran): "I was beside Allah's Messenger in the battle of Uhud. He shot arrows until his bow was broken. Then he began giving his arrows to me. Each time he gave me a featherless arrow, he ordered me to shoot it, which I did, and it flew just like one with feathers, piercing an unbeliever's body. In the course of this, Qatada b. an-Nu'man was hit by an arrow, and one of his eyeballs poked. Allah's Messenger, with his auspicious blessed hand, placed the eyeball back in its socket. The eye healed at once, as if nothing had happened to it, and became even better than the other one. " This incident became so famous that when one of the grandsons of Qatada came to Umar b. Abdul-Aziz (RA), he presented himself with the following words in poetic form: "I am the son of that person whose poked eyeball was placed in its socket by the Messenger of Allah and became the best eye. " This is also reported through an authentic narration: In the battle of Yawm az-Ziqarad, Abu Qatada (RA) was hit in the face with an arrow. Allah's Messenger (ASW) wiped his face with his auspicious hand. Abu Qatada says, "I never felt the pain, nor did the wound fester. "

SECOND EXAMPLE: Reported in accurate books, above all Bukhari and Muslim: Allah's Messenger (ASW) had appointed Ali (RA) b. Abi Talib as the flag-holder at the battle of Khaybar, but Ali (RA) had been suffering severely from sore eyes. Allah's Messenger (ASW) applied his healing saliva to his eyes, and at the same moment, the pain ceased and his eyes became much better. The following morning, Ali (RA) conquered Khaybar using the very heavy iron gate of the citadel that he had torn away as a shield. In the same battle, Salama b. al-Aqwa (RA) had his leg cut by a sword, and Allah's Messenger (ASW) healed it by breathing on him.

THIRD EXAMPLE: Authorities on the Prophet's biography, above all, Nasa'i, report from Uthman b. Hunayf (RA): "A blind man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, 'Pray for my eyes to open. ' Allah's Messenger said, 'Go, make ablution, and then pray two rek'ats, and say, [O Allah, I ask Thee, while turning toward Thee, for the sake of the Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy. O Muhammad, I turn toward your Lord, for your sake and through you, asking that He (Allah swt) uncover my sight. O Allah, make him my intercessor.] ' He departed to do what he had been told. When he came back, his eyes had already been opened. "

FOURTH EXAMPLE: Ibn Wahab (RA), one of the great imams, reports: When Mu'awwidh b. Afra' (RA), one of the fourteen martyrs of the battle of Badr, was fighting with Abu Jahl. The accursed Abu Jahl cut off one of his hands. Mu'awwidh took his cut-hand in the other and came to Allah's Messenger (ASW), who stuck it to his wrist, applied his blessed saliva to it and healed it. He then turned back to battle and fought until he was martyred. Also reported by Imam Jalil b. Wahab: In the same battle, Hubayb b. Yasaf (RA) received such a sword blow on the shoulder that it seemed as if his shoulder had been divided into two. Allah's Messenger (ASW) stuck his arm to his shoulder, breathed on him, and the wound healed. Although these two incidents are separate and individually reported, they can be regarded as having definetely occurred because they have been amended by such an imam like Ibn Wahab (RA), and taken place in a battle that itself was a spring of wonders.

Moreover, many similar events have occurred resembling these two incidents. In fact, there are a thousand examples that have been proved through authentic narrations, showing that the auspicious hands of the Messenger (ASW) healed all the wounds that they touched.

A Passage Worthy of Being Written in Gold and Diamonds: This has been mentioned before. The fact that small rocks glorify and praise Allah (SWT) in the Prophet's hand (ASW); that a little amount of soil and small stones become like cannon balls in his palm and put the enemy to rout through the mystery of
"When you threw, it was not your act, but Allah's." [Al Qur'an 8:17] ;
that he divides the moon into two with a gesture of his finger as related in the verse:
"And the moon split," [Al Qur'an 54:1] ;
that water runs like a fountain from the ten fingers of the same hand and satisfies an army; that the same hand becomes a cure for the ill and the wounded- all this shows how wondrous a miracle of Power his blessed hand is. For friends, the palm of this hand is, as it were, a little mosque of the Most Holy -even if stones enter it they praise and glorify Allah. For enemies, it is a miniature arsenal of the Lord in which soil and rocks become bombs in it. For the ill and the wounded, it is a little pharmacy of the Most Merciful and a cure for every wound it touches. When it rises with wrath, it divides the moon and give it the shape of hemispheres. When it gesticulates with grace, it resembles a fountain of Mercy with ten spigots giving abundant water. Since it is only the hand of this being (ASW) that is the object of such magnificent miracles, will it not be obvious how highly he is accepted in the sight of the Creator of the universe, how truthful he is in his cause, and how fortunate are those who have taken the oath of allegiance to the owner of that hand?

QUESTION: Although you describe many of these narrations as mutawatir, we have heard most of them for the first time. Would a mutawatir narration have remained unknown for so long ?

ANSWER: There are many mutawatir facts that are obvious to men of learning and unknown to others. There are also many narrations that are mutawatir to narration scholars, but may not even regarded as individual reports according to other persons. Authorities on a science explain theories and axioms; others (or laymen) either rely upon such explanations, or enter that science to make their own observations. As for the incidents that we report here, they have been regarded by narration scholars, authorities in the Sacred Law and most other classes of scholars, as mutawatir, either in reality or in meaning, or otherwise carrying the same certainty as tawatur. Since this is so, if the uneducated who are not aware of them, and those ignorant people who have shut their eyes to the truth, do not know these facts the fault is their own.

FIFTH EXAMPLE: Imam Baghawi (RA) amends and narrates: Ali b. al-Hakam (RA) had his leg broken by the blow of an unbeliever at the battle of Khandag. Allah's Messenger (ASW) stroked his leg, and it was healed at the same moment, so that he did not dismount from his horse again.

SIXTH EXAMPLE: Narration scholars, including Imam Bayhaqi, report that once Ali (RA) was so ill that he could not help moaning. As he was alone and praying for his cure, Allah's Messenger (ASW) came in and said, "O my Allah, heal him!" He then said to Ali, "Get up !" touching him with his foot. He was cured at once. Ali says, "Since then I have never caught the same illness."

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: This is the well-known story of Shurahbil al-Ju'fi (RA). He had a tumor in his palm that would not let him hold either his sword or the reins of his horse. After Allah's Messenger (ASW) stroked the tumor and massaged it with his blessed hand, it disappeared.

EIGHT EXAMPLE: Six children (and a woman), one by one, were honored with the miracles of the Prophet (ASW).

FIRSTIbn Abi Shayba (RA), a meticulous researcher and a well-known narration scholar, relates that a woman brought her son to Allah's Messenger (ASW). The boy was an idiot who could not even speak. Allah's Messenger rinsed his mouth with water and washed his hands and gave the water to the woman telling drunk the water. There was nothing left of his idiocy; his intelligence then surpassed that of even the brightest.

SECONDIbn Abbas (RA) reports in an authentic narration that one day an insane child was brought to Allah's Messenger. He put his hand on the child's chest, so that the child suddenly vomited a small, black object that resembled a cucumber. He was cured in the same breath.

 SECONCBayhaki and Nasa'i (RA) report in an authentic narration that Allah's Messenger (ASW) healed a boy named Muhammad b. Khatib whose arm had been scalded with boiled water, by stroking his arm and applying his saliva to it.

FORTH A big but mute boy came to Allah's Messenger. When Allah's Messenger asked, "Who am I" he said, "You are the Messenger of Allah," and began to speak.

FIFTH Narrated by Jalaladdin Suyuti (RA), who was honored by conversing with Allah's Messenger (ASW) several times in a state of awakening: A baby who had just been born was taken to Allah's Messenger (ASW). When Allah's Messenger turned to him, the baby began to speak, and said, "I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah." Then Allah's Messenger said, "May Allah bless you!" After that, he never spoke again during his infancy. He later became famous as Mubarak al-Yamama (the blessed one of Yamama), for he had been honored by this miracle of the Prophet (ASW) and his supplication of "May Allah bless you."

SIXTHAn ill-natured boy interrupted Allah's Messenger by passing before him while he was praying. Allah's Messenger said, "O Allah, cut short his paces." After this, the boy was unable to walk as a punishment for his bad behavior.

SEVENTH A shameless woman who had the nature of a silly child asked for a bite of food that Allah's Messenger (ASW) was eating. He gave her one, but she insisted, "No, I want the one in your mouth." Allah's Messenger gave it to her. After eating that delicacy, she became the shyest, chaste woman in Medina. These eight examples are not the only ones belonging to these kind of miracles; there are perhaps eight hundred more, most of which have been related in the books of narration and of the Prophet's biography. Indeed, his auspicious hand resembles a pharmacy of Luqman (AS), his saliva the life-giving fountain of Khidr (AS), and his breath the salutary breath of Jesus (AS). As humanity is afflicted with various kinds of diseases, many people resorted to him: the sick, the young, the insane flocked to him, and all returned cured. As stated with certainty by Abu Abdurrahman al Yamani (one of the greatest scholars of the generation following the Companions, known as Ta'us, who made pilgrimage (hajj) forty times, performed the morning-prayer with the ablution of the night-prayer continually for forty years, and conversed with many of the Companions): "Whenever an insane person came to Allah's Messenger, he was cured as soon as Allah's Messenger put his hand on the chest of the ill person; there was no exception to this." Since an imam who reached back to the era of the Prophet (ASW) had such a definite and comprehensive conviction, there is no room for question that all who came to him were cured. As they were all cured, it is quite normal that thousands of people should have resorted to him.
FOURTEENTH SIGN

[Miracles as results of prayers]

A great number of the various miracles of Allah's Messenger (ASW) are comprised of those that became manifest as a result of his prayers. This kind of miracle is definite and mutawatir, having innumerable examples most of which reach the degree of tawatur or have become well-known as tawatur, while others have been related by such authorities that they bear the same certitude as 'well-known tawatur'. As examples, we will quote only some of the numerous instances of this kind of miracle that are very well known and nearest in degree to tawatur, giving some specifics of each instance.

FIRST EXAMPLE:

The fact that the Prayers of Allah's Messenger for rain were always accepted has been transmitted by narration scholars, primarily Bukhari and Muslim. There were times when he raised his hands to pray for rain at the pulpit, and before he lowered them rain began. As mentioned previously, whenever the water of the Muslim army was exhausted, clouds came to give them rain. In his childhood, the Prophet's grandfather Abdul-Muttalib would go to pray for rain with him, and rain would begin out of respect for Muhammad (ASW). This fact has become celebrated through a poem of Abdul-Muttalib. After the Prophet's demise, once Umar prayed, referring to the Prophet's uncle Abbas, "O Allah! This is the uncle of Thy well-beloved. Give us rain for his sake!" and it rained. Bukhari and Muslim report that once Allah's Messenger (ASW) was asked to pray for rain. He prayed, and such a rain descended that they had to request him to pray for it to cease. He prayed again and the rain stopped at the same moment.

SECOND EXAMPLE:

It is almost as well-known as tawatur that when the number of the believers was below forty, Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed, "O my Allah! Give strength to Islam by means either of Umar b. Khattab or of Umar b. Hisham "Within a few days of his prayer, Umar b. Khattab was converted to the faith and became such a means of propagating and exalting Islam that the acquired the title of Faruq (discerner between the false and the truth).

THIRD EXAMPLE:

Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed for various distinguished Companions for different purposes. His prayers were all accepted in so brilliant a way that the wonders of these prayers reached the degree of miracle. For example, as reported primarily by Bukhari and Muslim, he prayed for Ibn Abbas, "O my Allah! Give him knowledge in religion and teach him interpretation!" This prayer was accepted in such a way that Ibn Abbas acquired the high status of being an "Interpreter of the Qur'an" and "the Scholar of the Ummah." When he was very young, Umar (RA) allowed him to join in the meetings of the scholars and elders among the Companions. As reported in accurate books including Bukhari, the mother of Anas requested the Messenger (ASW) to pray for an abundance of descendants and wealth for Anas, who was his servant. The Prophet (ASW) prayed, "O Allah! Give abundance to his wealth and offspring, and bless that which You bestowed upon him!" Anas (RA) said in his old age, swearing by Allah (SWT), "I have buried a hundred of my children. As for wealth, no one has led such a happy life as I have. You see the abundance of my riches, which is the result of the blessing ot the Prophet's prayer." Narration Scholars, including Bayhaqi, report that Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed that Abdurrahman b. Awf, one of the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, might have abundance and the blessings of wealth. Through the blessing of that prayer, he acquired such wealth that once he donated seven hundred camels with their loads to the cause of Allah (SWT). Now look at the blessings coming from the prayers of the Prophet (ASW), and say, "Great are Allah's blessings!" Again narration scholars, above all Bukhari report that Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed that Urwa b. Abi Ja'da might profit in business. Urwa (RA) says "Sometimes I would go to Kufa market and come home in the evening having earned forty thousand." Bukhari says, "If he took a little earth in his hand, he would gain a profit from it."

Abdullah b. Ja'far, for whom Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed for blessing, also acquired such wealth that he became famous for his riches. He was known for generosity too, which was another blessing of the Prophet's (ASW) prayer.

There are various instances of this kind of miracle. We consider, however, only the four that have been mentioned before as sufficient examples. Tirmidhi and other narration scholars report: Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed that the prayers of Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas might be accepted, saying, "O Allah, accept his prayer!" After that, Sa'd (RA) became famous for his prayers, so that everyone feared his malediction.

On another occasion, Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed that Abu Qatada (RA) might remain young, saying, "May Allah prosper thy face! O Allah, bless his hair and his skin!" When Abu Qatada died at seventy, he looked as young as fifteen.

The famous story of the poet Nabigha: Once he read a poem of his to Allah's Messenger (ASW) which ran as "Our glory and praise have reached to the skies; we want to ascend even higher." Allah's Messenger (ASW) asked, jokingly, 'To where beyond the skies?" Nabigha (RA) replied, 'To Paradise." He then read another poem, and then Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed, 'May Allah not spoil your mouth!" It was through the blessing of this prayer of the Prophet (ASW) that he did not have a single tooth missing in his mouth when he was one hundred and twenty years old. Whenever he lost a tooth, another would appear in its place.

As reported through an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed for Ali (RA), "O Allah, protect him from heat and cold!" Through the benediction of this prayer, Ali (RA) wore summer clothing in winter, and winter clothing in summer. He said, "I never suffered from heat or cold."

Allah's Messenger (ASW) also prayed for Fatima (RA), "O Allah, do not give her the smart of hunger!" Fatima (RA) said, "Since then I have never suffered from hunger."

On another occasion, when Tufayl b. Amr (RA) asked for a miracle of Allah's Messenger (ASW) to show to his tribe, Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "O Allah, illuminate him!" and a light appeared between his eyes, which was later transferred to the end of his staff. This is why he was known as Dhin-Nurayn (the possessor of two lights). These events are among well-known incidents that have acquired certainty. Abu Hurayra (RA) once complained to Allah's Messenger (ASW) about forgetfulness. Allah's Messenger (ASW) told him to spread out a piece of cloth on the ground. He then made some movements with his hands in the air as if taking some invisible objects and putting them on a piece of cloth, and after repeating this two or three times, said, "Now pick it up." Through this prayer of the Prophet (ASW), Abu Hurayra (RA) later stated swearing by Allah (SWT) that he never forgot anything again. This event is also among well-known narrations.

FOURTH EXAMPLE:

We will narrate a few events here regarding the maledictions of Allah's Messenger (ASW).

FIRST: The Persian Shah Parviz tore up the letter sent to him by the Prophet (ASW). When Allah's Messenger (ASW) heard of this, he prayed, "O Allah, rend him as he tore my letter!" As a result of this malediction, his son Shirviya cut him into pieces with a dagger, and Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas (RA) broke his empire apart, so that no trace of his sovereignty remained anywhere. The Emperor of Byzantine and the rulers of other empires did not perish, however, for they respected the letters of the Messenger (ASW).

SECOND: An event almost as well-known as tawatur that is pointed out by verses of the Qur'an: In the early days of Islam, when Allah's Messenger (ASW) was praying at the Ka'ba, the heads of Quraish gathered there and treated him very badly. Allah's Messenger (ASW) then called down curses of Allah (SWT) upon them. Ibn Mas'ud (RA) says, "I would have sworn that I saw the bodies of all of them after the battle of Badr."

THIRD: Allah's Messenger (ASW) prayed that Mudariyya, a large Arab tribe, be subjected to famine, for they had contradicted him. Rain stopped, draught and famine arouse. But later some people from the Quraish, who were derived from the Mudariyya, requested that Allah's Messenger (ASW) pray for rain. He prayed, then rain was sent, and draught and famine was ended. This incident is also well-known to the degree of tawatur.

FIFTH EXAMPLE:The fact that the maledictions of the Prophet (ASW) against specific persons were accepted and became reality in a fearful way is illustrated by several instances out of which we will relate three special ones.

FIRST: Allah's Messenger cursed Utba b. Abi Lahab, saying, O Allah, send one of Your dogs upon him. Some time later, when Utba was on a journey, a lion came, spotted him among the members of the caravan, and killed him. This incident is well-known, having been amended and reported by famous narration scholars.

SECOND: Allah's Messenger (ASW) had sent Amir b. Azbat (RA) to fight as the commander of a squadron. One of his men, Muhallim b. Jassama, killed Amir out of spite. When the news reached the Prophet (ASW), he was angered, and prayed, O Allah, do not forgive Muhallim. Muhallim died seven days later. His corpse was put into the grave, but the grave rejected it. Several attempts were made to bury the body, and every time the grave threw it out. A covering finally had to be built to house the corpse.

THIRD: Allah's Messenger (ASW) saw a man eating with his left hand. He warned him, "Eat with right hand." The man lied, "I cannot do it with my right hand." Then Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "You will never use it again." After that he was never able to lift his right hand again.

SIXTH EXAMPLE: From among many wonders demonstrated through the Prophet's (ASW) prayer and his touch, we will relate a few incidents that have acquired certainty.

FIRST: Allah's Messenger (ASW) gave Khalid b. Walid (RA), known as "the Sword of Allah," a couple of his hairs, and prayed for him. Khalid (RA) kept the hairs in his turban, and, as a result of the blessing of that prayer and those hairs, he was victorious in each battle he fought.

SECOND: Salman al-Farisi (RA) was formerly a slave of Jews. His masters had asked for a very high ransom, saying, "You must plant three hundred date pulms, and after they bear fruit, you must give us forty okkas (1 okka = 1282 gr.) of gold in addition to the fruit in order to earn your freedom." He came to Allah's Messenger and explained his situation. Allah's Messenger himself planted the date palms somewhere near Medina; only one of them was planted by some other person. Within the same year, all three hundred trees bore fruit, with the exception of the one planted by the other person. Allah's Messenger (ASW) took it out and planted it again, and it too bore fruit. He then put his saliva on a piece of gold at the size of an egg, and gave it to Salman, telling him to give it to Jews. After he had given Jews forty okkas of gold out of it, it remained as it had been before. This miraculous incident, which is reported by respected and trusted authorities, was the most significant event in the entire life of Salman (RA).

THIRD: A woman named Umm Malik (RA) would offer Allah's Messenger (ASW) butter out of a leather bag known as ukka. In one occasion, when Allah's Messenger (ASW) was giving the ukka back to her, he prayed over it, and told her not to empty or to squeeze it. Later on, as a result of the benediction of the Prophet's prayer (ASW), butter was found whenever Umm Malik's children asked for it. This continued for a long time, until they squeezed the ukka, which resulted in the disappearance of the blessing.

SEVENTH EXAMPLE: There are also many example of water coming sweet and emitting pleasant odors, of which we will relate a few.

 FIRST: Narration scholars, above all Bayhaqi, narrate that the water of a well called Quba would frequently disappear. After Allah's Messenger (SAW) poured it in some water that he had used for ablution, plenty of water was always found in the well.

SECOND: Narration Scholars, above all Abu Nu'aym in his Dala'il an-Nubuwwa (The Proofs of the Prophethood), report that when Allah's Messenger (SAW) ejected his saliva into the well of Anas, its water beame the sweetest in Medina.

THIRD: Ibn Maja (RA) reports that one day a bucket of water from the well of Zamzam was brought to Allah's Messenger (SAW). He took a little amount in his mouth, then emptied it into the bucket. The bucket gave forth a musk-like odor.

FOURTH: Ahmad b. Hanbal (RA) narrates that a bucket-full of water was taken from a well. Allah's Messenger (SAW) put his saliva into the bucket and poured the water into the well. The well began to give forth a musk-like odor.

FIFTH: Hammad b. Salama (RA), who was esteemed and relied upon by Muslim and the scholars of the Maghrib (RAE), reports: Allah's Messenger (SAW) filled a leather bag with water, breathed into it while praying, and then closed it and gave it to some Companions (RAE), saying, "Do not open it except when you perform ablution." When they opened it for ablution, they saw that there was milk inside, with cream of a finger's thickness. These five instances have been narrated by well-known and important authorities. Together with those that are not mentioned here, they prove the occurrence of this kind of miracle as definite as tawatur in meaning.

EIGHTH EXAMPLE: Sterile goats began to produce abundant milk through the touch and prayer of Allah's Messenger (SAW). This miracle also has various examples, but we will relate only a few decisive and well-known ones.

FIRST: As reported in all respected books on the biography of the Prophet, Allah's Messenger (SAW) and Abu Bakr (RA) stopped at the house of Umm Mabad (also called Atibat bint al-Huza'iyya), as they were emigrating from Mecca. There was a very thin, barren goat. Allah's Messenger (SAW) asked, "Does it not have milk", Umm Ma'bad (RA) replied, "It does not have blood in its veins, how will it have milk". Allah's Messenger (SAW) touched its loins, stroked its teats, prayed, and then said, "Bring a vessel and milk it." They did so, and the whole household, as well as Allah's Messenger (SAW) and Abu Bakr, drank the milk until they were fully satisfied. And the goat kept its newly acquired quality and productivity through the touch and the prayer of Allah's Messenger (SAW).

SECOND: The well-known story of Shat b. Mas'ud (RA): Before becoming a Muslim, Ibn Mas'ud was a shepherd. One day Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr went to where he was. Allah's Messenger (SAW) asked him for some milk. He said, "The goats do not belong to me, but to someone else." Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, "Then bring me a barren goat." Ibn Mas'ud (RA) fetched a goat that had not mated for the past two years. Allah's Messenger (SAW) stroked her teats and prayed. Then they milked her and delicious milk came forth, which they drank. Ibn Mas'ud (RA) became a Muslim upon witnessing this miracle.

THIRD: The well-known story of Halima Sa'diya (RA), the foster mother of Allah's Messenger (SAW): Her tribe was suffering from famine. Their weak animals could not eat properly and thus could not produce milk. However, when Allah's Messenger (SAW) was sent to stay with her as his foster mother, her goats, unlike those of the others, and as a result of the blessing that came through him, would turn back in the evening fully satisfied, with their udders full of milk. There are other examples of this kind of miracle in the books of biography of the Prophet, but these are sufficient for the purpose.

NINTH EXAMPLE:A great many wonders became manifest through the Prophet's (ASW) stroking various people's heads and face, and through his prayers. We will relate a few well-known instances in this respect.

 FIRST: He touched Umar b. Sa'd's head with his hand and prayed, so that Umar (RA) did not have a single white hair on his head when he died at the age of eighty.

SECOND: Allah's Messenger (ASW) put his hand on Qays b. Zayd's head, stroked it, and prayed. When Qays (RA) was one hundred years old, his head was covered with white hair except the area where Allah's Messenger (ASW) had put his hand.

THIRD: Abdurrahman b. Zayd b. Khattab was a small, unbeautiful man. Allah's Messenger (ASW) stroked his head and prayed, and through the blessing of that prayer, he acquired a very tall and handsome form.

FOURTH: A'iz b. Amr (RA) received a wound on his face during the battle of Hunayn. Allah's Messenger (ASW) wiped the blood on his face away with his hand. That part of his face shone and remained shining, in a manner described by the narration scholars as "shining like the whiteness on the forehead of a bay horse,"

FIFTH: Resul-u Ekrem (ASW) touched Qatada b. Salman (RA) on the face and prayed, and his face began to shine like a mirror.

SIXTH: When Zaynab (RA), the daughter of the Mother of the Believers (Umm Salama, RA) and the stepdaughter of Allah's Messenger (ASW), was a child, Allah's Messenger (ASW) sprinkled some of his ablution water on her face. With the touch of the water, her face acquired a wondrous beauty.

Similar to these examples, there are many more of the same kind, most of which have been narrated by the best-known narration scholars. Even if each of these instances is regarded as a separate report and is thus considered 'questionable', together they still represent a miracle of Muhammad (ASW) that has the certainty of tawatur in meaning. For, when an incident is reported in various ways, its having occurred becomes definite; those reports prove it true, even if they are separately questionable in their details. Suppose that a noise was heard. Someone says, "Such and such a house has collapsed," someone else says, 'No, another house," still another reports the collapse of a different house, and so on. Each report may be separately questionable and incorrect in one detail, but there is something certain: the collapse of a house, which is agreed on by all.

As regards to the six examples related above, they all are true, some having become quite well-known. Even if every one of them individually is assumed to be questionable, together they definitely prove the occurrence of a miracle of Muhammad (ASW), just as the collapse of a house is proved in the comparison-example.

The obvious miracles of Allah's Messenger (ASW) definitely exist as categories, and their particulars are the instances and examples. Just as the hands, fingers, saliva, breath and words of Allah's Messenger (ASW) are the sources of various miracles, so, too, his other members are the means of numerous wonders. The books of his biography and of history have related those wonders, demonstrating the fact that both his spiritual and physical qualities yield many proofs to the veracity of his prophethood.
THE FIFTEENTH SIGN:

[Miracles related to the testimony of the animal,dead, jinn and angel kingdoms to the Prophethood of Muhammad (ASW).]

Just as rocks, trees, the moon and the sun recognize him and testify to his prophethood, each demonstrating one of his miracle, so, too, the animal, the dead, the jinn and the angel kingdoms recognize this blessed being and bear witness to his prophethood. They prove this fact by becoming the object of his miracles. We will explain this Sign in three in three parts.

FIRST PART

The animal kingdom knows Allah's Messenger and demonstrate his miracle. This part has many instances; we will mention here, however, only a few that are well-known, certain as tawatur by meaning, agreed upon by discerning authorities, or accepted by the majority of the Ummah.

THE FIRST INCIDENT which has the reputation of tawatur by meaning: When Allah's Mesenger, together with Abu Bakr, took shelter in the cave of Hira in order to be safe from the unbelievers who were in pursuit of them, two pigeons stood guard at the entrance like two sentries, and a spider, like a doorkeeper, covered the entrance of the cave with a thick web. As Ubayy b. Khalaf, one of the heads of the Quraish who was killed by Allah's Mesenger in the battle of Badr, was examining the cave, his friends suggested that they should enter, but he replied, "This web seems to have been spun before Muhammad was born, and there are two pigeons standing there. Would they still be there if someone were in the cave?" In an instance similar to this one, a blesed pigeon cast a shadow upon Allah's Mesenger in the course of the conquest of Mecca, as has been related by Imam Jalil b. Wahab. Aisha as-Siddiqa also reports, through an authentic narration: "We had a pigeon in our house When Allah's Mesenger was home, it would stay quiet, but as soon as he left the house, the bird would start going to and from without stopping." Thus, the bird was obedient to the Prophet, remaining quiet in his presence.

THE SECOND INCIDENT is the story of the wolf, which is of the same certitude as tawatur by meaning, having been reported through various channels by well-known Companions such as Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Salama b. al-Aqwa, Ibn Abi Wahab, Abu Hurayra, and Uhban (a shepherd who became involved in another event): A wolf snatched a goat from a herd, but the shepherd rescued the goat. The wolf said, "Don't you fear God? You have deprived me of my sustenance!" The shepherd muttered to himself, "How strange! Can a wolf speak?" The wolf replied, "Your state is strange! There is a prophet behind this hill inviting you to Paradise, but you don't know of him!" All reports agree on the wolf's speaking; in addition, Abu Hurayra who himself constitute a strong support reports that after this reply, the shepherd asked the wolf, "I will go then, but who will take care of my goats?" "I will," said the wolf, and the shepherd went to see Allah's Mesenger, leaving the herd to the care of the wolf. He was converted to faith and returned to find the wolf shepherding the herd with no loss. He then slaughtered a goat and offered it to the wolf, for it had become a teacher for him. In another incident, Abu Sufyan and Safwan, two of the chiefs of Quraish, saw a wolf going into the Ka'ba enclosure in pursuit of a gazelle. As it returned, the wolf spoke and bore witnes to the prophethood of Muhammad. They were surprised at this. Then Abu Sufyan said to Safwan, "Let us not tell this to anyone, for I fear that the whole of Mecca would flock to join the Muslims." To conclude, the miracle of the Prophet concerning the wolf is certain, and gives one the satisfaction of tawatur by meaning.

THE THIRD INCIDENT is the narrative of the camel, which was unanimously related through some five or six channels by famous Companions of the Prophet such as Abu Hurayra, Sa'laba b. Malik, Jabir b. Abdullah, Abdullah b. Ja'far and Abdullah b. Abi Awla. A camel came to Allah's Messenger, prostrated itself before him as if saluting him, and spoke to him. According to certain other narrations, this camel had gone wild and would attack whoever attempted to come near to it. When Allah's Mesenger appeared, it came to him, prostrated itself as a sign of respect, and knelt down beside him, so that Allah's Mesenger put a bridle on it. Then the camel complained to Allah's Messenger, "They have employed me in the heaviest work, and now they want to butcher me." Allah's Messenger asked its owner, "Is it true?" "Yes," he said. The Prophet had a camel named Adba, which, after his demise, did not eat or drink anything until it starved to death. As has been related by well- known authorities such as Abu Ishaq al-Isfarani, it had a talk with Allah's Messenger concerning a well-known story. In another instance, the camel of Jabir b. Abdullah became exhausted and reached the point of being unable to continue. Allah's Messenger prodded it slightly. Such joy and nimbleness did the camel receive from that prod that it could not be caught up with, nor could its reins be seized. This event is reported by Jabir.

THE FOURTH INCIDENT: Traditionists, above all Bukhari, report that it was rumored one night that the enemy was coming to attack Medina. Brave horsemen set out to investigate. On their way, they met Allah's Messenger. He said, "There is nothing." His blessed courage had impelled him to set out to investigate the report before everyone else did. He also said to Abu Talha, "I found your horse faster," although his horse had been a very slow one. However, after that night no horse could race against it. On another occasion, as related in an authentic narration, Allah's Messenger told his horse to stop, as he was going to pray. While he was praying, the horse did not make the smallest movement.

THE FIFTH INCIDENT: Safina, the servant of Allah's Messenger, was going to meet Mu'adh b. Jabal, the governor of Yemen, upon the order of the Prophet. When he met with a lion on his way,Safina said,"I am the servant of Allah's Messenger-" Then the lion made a sound as if saying something, and left him. According to another narration, it was when he had lost his way while coming back that he met with the lion. Not only did the lion not touch him, it even showed him the way. As reported by Umar, a Beduin came to Allah's Messenger with a lizard in his hand, saying, "If this animal testifies to your messengership, I will believe in you; otherwise I will not." When Allah's Messenger asked the lizard, it testified to his messengership clearly and fluently. The Mother of the Believers Umm Salama relates that once a gazelle spoke to Allah's Messenger and testified to his messengership. There are many examples like these; we have mentioned only a few renowned ones. We consequently say to those who do not recognize and obey him, "O man, take warning from these events! Since the wolf and the lion recognize Allah's Messenger and obey him, you must try not to fall behind them.

SECOND PART:

The fact that corpses, jinn and angels recognize Allah's Messenger is also illustrated by many instances. We shall first give a few examples pertaining to corpses; as for jinn and angels, the miracles concerning them are mutawatir, and examples of them can be numbered in the thousands.

FIRST: As has been related by Hasan al-Basri, a truthful student of Ali b. Abi Talib and the greatest among both the scholars and the mystics of the generation that followed the Companions, a man told Allah's Messenger, weeping, "I had a little daughter, who was drowned in such and such a stream, and I left her corpse in the stream." Allah's Messenger pitied him, and said, "Come, we will go there." When they reached the place where the girl had drowned, Allah's Messenger called to her. She replied at once, "I am present and answer your call gladly. Allah's Messenger asked, Do you want to be with your parents again?" "No," she said, "I have found a better place here."

SECOND: Certain outstanding imams such as Bayhaqi and Ibn Adiy relate from Anas b. Malik that the only son of an old woman had died. The pious woman was very much afflicted by this, and prayed, "O Allah, I have emigrated from home purely to obtain Thy pleasure, to take the oath of allegiance to Thy Messenger and to serve him, for the sake of Thy Messenger, give me back my only son, who was the only one to look after me." Anas says, "The dead man got up and ate with us." In the following verses from the celebrated poem Qasida al-Burda. Imam Busiri refers to this wondrous event: "Were his wonders to correspond to his virtue in greatness, Mere mention of his name would have animated decayed bones."

THIRD: Bayhaqi and others report from Abdullah b. Ubeydullah al-Ansari: "During the battle of Yamama, I was present at the burial of the martyred Thabit b. Qays b. Shammas. As he was being put into the grave, his voice was heard saying,'Muhammad is Allah's Messenger, Abu Bakr is siddiq, Umar martyred, and Uthman pious and merciful.' We opened the grave; he was dead." Thabit thus foretold the martydom of Umar before he became Caliph.

FOURTH: Tabarani and Abu Nu'aym report from Nu'man b. Bashir: "Zayd b. Kharija died suddenly at the market. We took his body home. That night, at some time between the evening and night prayers, while women were crying around him, he said, 'Silence, silence!' and continued quite clearly and fluently, 'Muhammad is Allah's Messenger; peace be on you, O Allah's Messenger!' He then spoke a little more. We examined him; he was quite dead." Certainly, while lifeless bodies testify to his messengership, if living men deny him, they are more dead than the dead and more lifeless than corpses! As regards angels appearing to Allah's Messenger and serving him, and jinn believing in and obeying him, these facts are mutawatir, having been proved by numerous verses of the Qur'an. For example, in the battle of Badr, five thousand angels served him as soldiers on the front line like the Companions and they acquired an honor among the angels like that of the Companions who had fought in the battle.

Two aspects are to be considered in this respect:
First, the existence of angels and jinn and their relationship with us. As this fact has been proved decisively in the Twenty-Ninth Word, we refer the reader to it.

Second, as a result of the miracles of Allah's Messenger, his Ummah's seeing them and conversing with them. For example, traditionists, including Bukhari and Muslim, unanimously report that once the Archangel Gabriel came to Allah's Messenger, as he sat with his Companions in the form of a man dressed in white, and asked, "What is Islam, and what is faith, and what is goodness?" While Allah's Messenger was describing them, the Companions both learned a lesson and also saw that person quite plainly. He appeared to be a traveller, but bore no sign of a journey. When he disappeared suddenly, Allah's Messenger said, "Gabriel did this in order to teach you a lesson." Traditionists also report, relying upon authentic narrations having the certanity of tawatur in meaning, that the Companions would see Gabriel together with Allah's Messenger in the form of Dihya, who had a pleasing face. As it is certain that this fact was reported by Umar, Ibn Abbas, Usama b. Zayd, Harith, Aisha and Umm Salama, is it ever possible that they should have said, "We have seen," without really seeing? Reported by Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, the conqueror of lran and one of the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise: "In the battle of Uhud, we saw two sentries dressed in white at the sides of Allah's Messenger. We understood that they were two angels, Gabriel and Michael. "When such a hero of Islam says that he has seen them, is it possible that he should not have seen?

Abu Sufyan b. Harith Abdulmuttalib, a cousin of the Prophet, reports in an authentic narration that in the battle of Badr, they saw horsemen dressed in white between the sky and the earth. One day Hamza told Allah's Messenger that he wanted to see Gabriel. Allah's Messenger showed Gabriel to him, but he could not bear it and fell unconscious.

All these incidents demonstrate a kind of miracle of Muhammad and show that even angels are moths around the light of his prophethood. As far as jinn are concerned, not only the Companions, but also ordinary individuals from among the Ummah converse with them. The most definite instance of such an event is the one reported by Ibn Mas'ud. He says, "I saw the Jinn in Batn an-Nakhl, on the night they were converted to faith. They resembled the tall men of the Sudanese tribe called Zut." Another well-known event accepted by traditionists is that of Khalid b. Walid. When the idol named Uzza was destroyed, a female jinn came out of it in the form of a black woman, and Khalid cut her in two with a stroke of his sword. Then Allah's Messenger said, They have been worshipping her in the idol of Uzza. From now on she will not be worshipped." Umar says in one of his well-known reports: "When we were with Allah's Messenger, a jinn named Haama appeared in the form of an old man with a stick in his hand, and was converted to faith. Allah's Messenger taught him a few short suras: he learned his lesson and left." Some traditionists have expressed doubt about this incident, but the most outstanding imams are agreed on its accuracy. In any case, there is no need for long explanations, since we have many examples in this respect. We will only add this: through the light of Allah's Messenger and his teaching and by following him, thousands of eminent men of piety -such as Abdul Qadir Gilani- have interviewed and conversed with angels and jinn. This fact has reached the degree of tawatur a hundred times through innumerable instances.

THIRD PART:

The protection of Allah's Messenger is an evident miracle, and many of its instances are included in the meaning of this Qur'anic verse;

"And Allah will defend you from men." [Qur'an; 5:70]

Indeed, once Allah's Messenger has been appointed by Allah (SWA), he did not face a single tribe or race or a few rulers or a particular religion, rather he challenged all rulers, all peoples, and all religions. With his uncle and his tribe as the greatest enemies, he was able to breath his last breath in his own bed and reach the highest place of the incorporeal abode after twenty-three years with neither guard nor means of protection in the face of numerous plots against him. This fact clearly shows how sound a truth the verse just quoted expresses and on how solid a footing it is based. We will relate a few specific events as examples in this connection.

FIRST: As reported unanimously by authorities on the Prophet's biography and traditions, the Quraish conspired to assassinate Allah's Messenger and upon the suggestion of a diabolic member of their group, they chose a man from each tribe, gathering nearly two hundred men, in order not to let any possibility of dispute arise among them. They surrounded the house of Allah's Messenger under the command of Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab. Allah's Messenger told Ali, who was with him that night, to stay in his bed, and, after the house was entirely surrounded by the Quraish, he left it, threw some earth upon them, and passed through them without being seen by any one of them. When he reached the cave of Hira, two pigeons and a spider guarded him against the whole of the Quraish.

SECOND: This is also a certain incident. As Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr were going towards Medina after leaving the cave of Hira, the heads of Quraish sent a man named Suraqa to try to assassinate them, paying him a considerable amount of money. Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr saw that Suraqa was coming. As Abu Bakr showed anixiety, Allah's Messenger said, as he had done in the cave,

"Do not be sad; Allah is certainly with us." [Qur'an; 9:40]

He then cast a glance at Suraqa, and his horse's feet became stuck in the sand. Some time later he slipped out of the sand and began to follow them anew, but he soon became stuck again and saw smoke coming out of where his horse's feet were thrust. Seeing that it was far beyond anyone's ability to lay hands on Allah's Messenger, he had to ask for help. Allah's Messenger freed him, saying, "Go back, and make sure no one else comes."
Another certain event is also reported in relation to this incident. When a shepherd saw Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr, he immediately went to Mecca in order to inform the Quraish, but when he arrived there he forgot what he had come for. Tried as he might, he could not remember his intention, so he had to turn back. He later realized that he had been made to forget.
THIRD: It is reported through different channels that at the battle of Ghatfan and Anmar, the courageous head of a tribe named Ghuras stealthily approached Allah's Messenger, and holding his sword over the Prophet's head, asked,"Who will save you from me?" Allah's Messenger replied, "Allah!" and prayed, "O Allah, suffice me against him, If you will." In the same breath, Ghuras was fallen by a blow he received between his shoulders, and his sword slipped out of his hand. Allah's Messenger took the sword and asked him, "Now who will save you from me?" but he forgave him and allowed him to return to his tribe. His men were all surprised at such a courageous man having failed to do anything. They asked, "What happened to you, why couldn't you do anything?" He told them what had happenned, and added, "I am now coming from the presence of the best of men." In a fashion similar to this event, at the battle of Badr, a hypocrite stealthily approached Allah's Messenger. He had just lifted his sword when Allah's Messenger turned and glanced at him, causing him to tremble and drop the sword.

FOURTH: This incident has also acquired renown as tawatur in meaning and has been considered by most interpreters to be the occasion for the revelation of these verses:

Verily We have put yokes round their necks right up to their chins, so that their heads are forced up (and they cannot see). And We have put a bar in front of them and a bar behind them, and further, We have covered them up, so that they cannot see. [Our'an 36:8-9]

Abu Jahl took a big rock in his hand and said with an oath, "I will hit Muhammad with this rock, if I see him in prostration." He went and found him prostrating, and had just lifted the huge rock to hit the Prophet's head when his hands were fixed in the air. Not until Allah's Messsenger had finished his prayer and stood up did they become unbound, either by the permission of Allah's Messenger or because there was no longer any need for them to remain bound. In another similar incident, a man from the same tribe as Abu Jahl (Walid b. Mughira, according to one narration) went to the Ka'ba with a big rock in his hand to hit Allah's Messenger while he was in prostration, but his eyes were sealed and he could not see Allah's Messenger entering, nor was he able to see the people who had instructed him, being able only to hear their voices. When Allah's Messenger finished his prayer, his eyes were opened, for there was no longer any need for them to be closed.

In another incident that is reported from Abu Bakr through an authentic narration, after the Sura of Abu Lahab had been revealed, his wife Hammaalat al-Hatab (log carrier) Umm Jamil came to the Ka'ba with a rock in her hand. She saw Abu Bakr, who was sitting beside Allah's Messenger, and asked him, "Where is your friend? I hear that he has satirized me. If I see him, I will hit him in the mouth with this rock." Such a porteress of the logs of Hell could not, of course, have seen the one who was the object of the mystery of LAWLAK [*] and under Allah's protection, and could not have entered his presence. How could she have dared to do that?

FIFTH: As related through authentic reports, Amir b. Tufayl and Arbad b. Qays conspired to assassinate Allah's Messenger. Amir said, "I will keep him busy, and you hit him." They went to Allah's Messenger, but Arbad did not do anything. Amir asked later, "Why didn't you hit him?" Arbad answered. "How could I? Every time I intended to hit him, I saw you between us. Did you expect me to hit you?"

SIXTH: It is reported in an authentic narration that in either the battle of Uhud or Hunayn, Shayba b. Uthman al-Hajabayya, whose father and uncle had been killed by Hamza, approached Allah's Messenger creeping up quietly from behind in order to revenge his father and uncle. He lifted his sword, but it suddenly slipped out of his hand. Allah's Messenger turned to him, put his hand on Shayba's chest. When relating this event, Shayba said, "At that moment no one else could have been more beloved to me." He accepted faith at that very moment.

[*] Translator's Note: LAWLAK carries the meaning of a hadith in which Allah SWA says in meaning "I would not created the heavens, but for you."

SIXTH: It is reported in an authentic narration that in either the battle of Uhud or Hunayn, Shayba b. Uthman al-Hajabayya, whose father and uncle had been killed by Hamza, approached Allah's Messenger creeping up quietly from behind in order to revenge his father and uncle. He lifted his sword, but it suddenly slipped out of his hand. Allah's Messenger turned to him, put his hand on Shayba's chest. When relating this event, Shayba said, "At that moment no one else could have been more beloved to me." He accepted faith at that very moment. Then Allah's Messenger commanded him, "Now go and fight!" Shayba says, "I fought in front of Allah's Messenger. Had I met my own father, I would have killed even him." On the day of the conquest of Mecca, a man called Fadala came near to Allah's Messenger with the intention of shooting him. Allah's Messenger looked at him, and said, smiling, "What have you told yourself?" praying that he might be forgiven, and Fadala became a believer. Fadala later said, "No one in the world would have been more beloved than him at that moment."

SEVENTH: As related in an authentic narration, when some Jews were going to throw a huge rock at the Prophet's head from above, he disappeared suddenly as a result of Divine protection, bringing their plot to naught. There are many more instances of the same kind as these seven examples.

Traditionists, above all Bukhari and Muslim, report from Aisha that after the verse, "And Allah will defend you from men." [Qur'an; 5:70]
had been revealed, Allah's Messenger said to those who had guarded him from time to time: "O men, leave me! For Allah SWA, the Great and Mighty, protects me."

As this treatise has proved up to now, each species and each kind in this universe recognize Allah's Messenger and is connected with him; his miracles have become manifest through each of them. Thus he is the envoy and the Messenger of Allah who(ALLAH) is The Creator of the cosmos and the Lord of all beings. An important inspector appointed by a ruler is recognized by every department of the administration and is connected with each of them, because he has a duty to perform on behalf of the ruler. A judicial inspector, for example, is connected only with the Judicial Department; other departments may not know of him. Similarly, a military inspector is not recognized by the Civil Administration, and so on. Since all beings that exist in the departments of this Divine Kingdom, from angels to insects and spiders, know him, recognize him, or have been informed about him; he is the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds and the Seal of the prophets, with a messengership that is above that of all other prophets.
THE SIXTEENTH SIGN

The wonders that took place prior to his prophethood. They are called irhasat and also related to and evidences of his porphethood. Irhasat are three kinds.

The First Kind of Irhasat:

This kind of irhasat comprises, as stated by the indisputable truths of the Qur'an, the tidings of Muhammad's prophethood given by The Torah, The Indjil and The Zabur of David, and the pages revealed to certain other prophets. Since all these books are revelations and those who brought them are prophets, it is fitting that they should certainly have mentioned a being who would supersede their religions, change the shape of the universe, and illumine half of the world with his light. Is it possible that those books, which predict petty events, should not have mentioned the most significant phenomenon of humanity that is the Prophethood of Muhammad? Since it is then certain that the other books will mention Muhammad's prophethood, they will either denounce it as falsehood, in order to protect their religions from destruction and their books from abrogation, or they will affirm it so that, by means of this truthful being, their own religions will be kept free of superstition and corruption. Since friend and foe agree alike that none of the scriptures ever gave an indication of contradiction or of rejection, there is certainly affirmation in them concerning the Prophethood of Muhammad. And since there is certain affirmation, and a definite reason and a fundamental cause for such affirmation, we too will prove the existence of this affirmation by means of three definite evidences.

FIRST EVIDENCE: Allah's Messenger declares to the People of the Book by the tongue of the Qur'an, "Your scriptures describe and confirm me. In whatever I declare, I have the affirmation of your scriptures." He challenges them with verses such as:

"Say, 'Bring the Torah and read it, if you are men of truth'" [Qur'an; 3:93]
"Say, 'Come, let us gather together -our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!'" [Qur'an 3:61]

Despite his casting such verse at their heads, neither the Jewish scholars nor the Christian priests could ever bring forth a single error of his. If they had been able to, those stubborn and envious unbelievers of whom there were excessive numbers at the time and the whole world of unbelief, would have advertised everywhere all that they found.

SECOND EVIDENCE: The wordings of the Old Testament, the Gospels of the New Testament and the Psalms do not have the miraculousness of the Qur'an. Moreover, they have been translated time after time: thus a great many alien words have become intermingled with them. In addition, the sayings of the interpreters and their wrong interpretations have been confused with the original verses, and the distortions of ignorant and hostile men were also incorporated. Thus alterations and corruptions were multiplied in the scriptures. Once the famous scholar Sheikh Rahmatullah Al-Hindi silenced the priests and the Christian and Jewish scholars by proving to them the changes made in thousands of places in those books. However, even now, after so many corruptions, the celebrated Husain Al-Jisri extracted from the previous scriptures one hundred and fourteen pieces of evidence concerning the prophethood of Muhammad (SAW), and included them in his Risala Al-Hamidiya. This treatise was translated into Turkish by the late Ismail Haqqi of Manastir; whoever wishes to see those evidences may refer to it. Many Jewish and Christian scholars acknowledged and admitted that the characteristics of Muhammad (SAW) were evident from their scriptures. The famous Roman Emperor Heraclius, who was a non-Muslim himself, said, "Yes, Jesus foretold Muhammad's coming." Another Roman ruler, Muqauqis, the governor of Egypt, and celebrated Jewish scholars such as Ibn Suriya, Zubayr b. Bativa, Ibn Ahtab and his brother Ka'b b. Asad, although remaining non-Muslim admitted, "lndeed, our books include his qualities." Coming from among the well-known Jewish scholars and Christian priests, those who broke that stubborness and accepted faith upon observing that the qualities mentioned in their books were possessed by Muhammad (SAW), silenced other scholars of their religions by showing them the references in the Old Testament and the Gospels of the New Testament. Among them were the famous Abdullah b. Salam, Wahb b. Munabbih, Abu Yasir, the two sons of Sa'ya, Asid and Tha'laba and Shamul. The latter entered faith at the time of Tubba', the ruler of Yemen, who accepted faith in absentia and prior to Muhammad's (SAW) declaration of prophethood. So did Shamul. A wise man named Ibn Hayaban was once visiting the tribe of Bani Nadr at a time prior to the declaration of prophethood. He said: "The emergence of a prophet is close, and this is the place to which he will emigrate," and died there. Later, when that tribe was figthting against the Prophet, Asid and Tha'laba -whose names were mentioned above- came out into the open and called to the tribe, "By God he is the one Ibn Hayaban promised you that he would come." But they did not heed the call and courted disaster. After observing the description of the Prophet in their own books, Ibn Bunyamin, Mukhayriq and Ka'b Al-Ahbar, from among the Jewish religious scholars, also embraced faith and silenced with their arguments those who were still in opposition. As for the incident concerning the famous Christian monk Bahira, Allah's Messenger was, at the age of twelve, on a journey with his uncle to Damascus. As they stopped nearby, the monk Bahira invited all the men of the Quraish in the caravan for Muhammad's (ASW) sake. As he noticed that a cloud providing shade for the caravan still remained at the same point, he said, "The one I am seeking must have remained there." He sent a man to fetch Muhammad (ASW), and, at the end, said, to Abu Talib, "Go back to Mecca. The Jews are very envious people, so they might resort to treachery against him, for his description is recorded in the Book." Nestor the Ethiopian and the ruler of that country, the Negus, accepted faith after seeing the description of the Prophet (ASW) in their book. A famous Christian scholar named Daghatr, after seeing the description of the Prophet (ASW), also entered the fold of Islam and was martyred when he announced his conversion to the Byzantines. From among the Christian leaders, Harith b. Abi Shumar al-Ghasani and the prominent rulers and religious leaders of Damascus such as Sahib al-ilba, Heraclius, Ibn Natur and al-Jarud entered the fold of Islam, after seeing the Prophet's description in their books. Of them, only Heraclius concealed his conversion for the sake of worldly kingship. Like these people, Salman al-Farisi was also formerly a Christian, who began searching for the Prophet (ASW) after seeing his description. A distinguished scholar named Tamim, as well as the Negus and the Christians of Ethiopia and the priests of Najran, all unanimously declared that they had seen in their books the description of the Prophet (ASW), and they came to believe in him.

THIRD EVIDENCE: Here we will point out from the New Testament (NT) and the Old Testament (OT) a few examples of verses concerning our Prophet (ASW).

FIRST:In the Psalms, there is this verse 'O Allah, send to us after the period between prophets one who will establish an exemplary model.' Here "one who will establish an exemplary model" refers to the Prophet Muhammad (ASW).

A verse from the NT says: "The Messiah said, 'I am leaving for my and your Father so that He may send you the Paraclete," that is, Ahmad Muhammad.

A second verse from the NT: "I ask from my Lord for the Paraclete that he may abide with you forever." Paraclete, meaning "the separator of good from evil," is the name of our Prophet (ASW) as mentioned in those books.

A verse from the OT says: "Verily Allah told Abraham that Hagar -the mother of Isma'il- will bear children. There will emerge from her sons one whose hand will be above all, and the hands of all will be opened to him in reverence."

Another verse from the OT: "And He said to Moses, "O Moses, verily I shall send them a Prophet like you, from the sons of their brothers (the children of Isma'il (AS)); I shall place My Word in his mouth, and shall punish whoever does not accept the words of the one who will speak in My Name."

A third verse from the OT: "Moses said, 'O Lord! Verily I have found in the Book the best of Ummahs that will emerge for the benefit of humanity, that will enjoin the good and forbid the wrong, and that will believe in Allah. Let it be my Ummah!' Allah said, 'That is the Ummah of Muhammad.' "

[A REMlNDER: In those books, the name Muhammad is given in Syriac form, such as Mushaffah, Munhamanna, Himyata which all mean Muhammad in Hebrew. Otherwise the name Muhammad is explicitly mentioned only in a few places, which were also altered by envious Jews.]

From among the Seven Abdullahs, Abdullah b. Amr b. As, who made extensive studies of the earlier scriptures, Abdullah b. Salam, who was the earliest to accept Islam from among the famous Jewish scholars, and the famous scholar Ka'b al-Ahbar from among the Children of Israel all pointed in the Torah, which was not then corrupted to its present extent, the following verse, which, after addressing Moses (AS), then addresses the Prophet yet-to-come: "O Prophet, verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, a warner and a protection for the unlettered. You are My bondsman, and I have named you 'the reliant on Allah.' You will not be harsh, stem and clamorous in the marketplaces, nor will you requite evil with evil, but instead pardon and forgive. Allah shall not take you unto Himself until you straightenest a crooked people by causing them to say, 'No god but Allah.' " Another verse from the OT:

"Muhammad is Allah's Messenger, his birthplace is Mecca, he will emigrate to Tayba, his rule will be in Damascus, and his Ummah will be constantly engaged in praise."

In this verse, a Syriac word meaning Muhammad is actually mentioned for the word Muhammad. Here is another verse from the OT:

"You are My bondsman and messenger, and I have named you 'reliant on Allah,' " addressed to a Prophet who is to come after Moses (AS), and is from the progeny of Isma'il, the brothers of Isaac (AS).

In the following verse from the OT,
"My chosen bondsman is not harsh or stem, " the meaning of Mukhtar (chosen) is the same as "Mustafa," another name of Muhammad (ASW).

In several places in the four books of NT, a Prophet who will come after Jesus (AS) is referred to as "the master of the world." Describing him, the Bible says,"With him is an iron staff with which he will fight,as will his people."

This verse indicates that a Prophet will come with a sword in order to wage jihad. Qadib al-hadid (literally, iron staff) means sword. In agrement with the Biblical verse mentioned above, and referring to it along with some other verses, the following Qur'anic verse at the end of Surat al-Fath also states that his Ummah, like him, will be commanded to wage jihad: [Q.48:29]

"And their similitude in the Indjil is: like a seed that sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, filling the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the unbelivers with rage at them."

In the Thirty-Third Section of the Fifth Book of the Torah, there is the following verse:

"The Lord came from Sinai, rose up unto us from Seir, and shined forth from Mount Paran."

In this verse, with the phrase "the Lord came from Sinai," the prophethood of Moses (AS) is mentioned: with the phrase "rose up unto us from Seir" (Seir being a mountain near Damascus) the prophethood of Jesus (AS) is indicated. Finally the phrase

"He shined forth from Mount Paran" (the Paran mountains being the mountains of Macca), gives tidings of the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW), as all will agree in utter certainty.

Moreover, confirmed by the sentence, [Q. 48:29] "This is their similitude in the Torah."
is the following verse of the OT concerning the Companions of the Prophet (ASW) who would shine forth from the Paran mountains: "The flags of the blessed ones will be with him and they will be on his right." In this verse the Companions of the Prophet (ASW) are described as "the blessed ones," that is, his Companions are blessed, righteous men, the beloved ones of Allah.

In the Forty-Second Chapter of the Book of the Prophet Isaiah, are the following verses:

"See My servant, whom I uphold; My Chosen One, in whom I delight. He will reveal justice to the nations of the world.... He will encourage the fainthearted, those tempted to despair. He will see full justice given to all who have been wronged. He will not be satisfied until the truth and righteousness prevail throughout the earth, nor until even distant lands beyond the seas have put their trust in him." Here, the verses manifestly proclaim the description ot Muhammad (ASW) who is clearly the Prophet for the last age.

In the Fourth Chapter of the Book of Micah, there are the following verses: "But in the last days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of Allah will be the most renowned one of all the mountains of the world, praised by all nations; people from all over the world will make pilgrimages there. "Come," they will say to one another, "let us go up to the mountain of Allah and the house of Allah." These verses obviously describe the most blessed mountain of the world, Mount Arafat, and the Umma of Muhammad (ASW) that will flock there from all countries, invoke Allah's Name and offer prayers there.

In the Seventy-Second Chapter of Psalms, there are the following verses: "And he will reign from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. The kings of Yemen and the Islands all will bring their gifts. And to him all the kings will prostrate themselves. All the nations will serve him... And he will live, and in his behalf prayer will be made constantly. All day long he will be praised. His name will prove to be time indefinite. It will continue as long as the sun. All will be blessed in him. All nations will praise him." These verses clearly describe the Glory of the World, Prophet Muhammad (ASW). Since Prophet David (AS), who other than Muhammad (ASW) has come to propagate his religion from East to West, to subject lands to pay tax in his name, to make many rulers obedient in deep adoration for him, and to earn everyday the prayers and remembrance of one fifth of the humanity (i.e., the Muslim Peoples) ? Is there anyone else but he?

Again, the Turkish translation of John’s Gospel, Chapter Fourteen verse thirty, says; “I shall not speak with you for much longer, for the ruler of the world is coming, and I am nothing compared with him.” Thus, the title Ruler of the World means Glory of the World. And the title of Glory of the World is one of the most famous of Muhammed the Arabian (upon whom be blessings and peace)’s titles.   

Again, in John 16:7, we read the following: "But I am telling you the truth. My departure is but for your benefit. For, unless I depart, the Comforter will not come." Now, who else other than Muhammad (ASW) is to be the true Comforter for humanity? Certainly, he is the one who will save the transient humanity from eternal annihilation and thus comfort it, and he is the one whose coming to the earth has made the whole world proud and thankful.

Again, in John 16:8 is this passage: "When he comes, he will give the world convincing evidence concerning its sin, concerning goodness and concerning judgment." Who else other than Muhammad (ASW) has come to transform the world's mischief into goodness, save humanity from evil deeds and polytheism (also atheism), and revolutionize the politics and rule of the nations of the world?

Again, from John 16:11: "There is deliverance from judgment, because the Prince of the World has already been judged." Here "the Prince of the World" is certainly Muhammad (ASW), for he is known as the master of humanity. He is, indeed, such a prince that for thirteen hundred years (now fourteen), he has had at least 350 million subjects (now one billion) in almost every century. And such subjects are those who follow him so earnestly that they obey his commands with the utmost submission and everyday renew their allegiance to him by calling down Allah's blessings on him.

Again, from John 16:13: "But when he, the Spirit of Truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth, for he shall not speak of himself, whatsoever he shall hear that shall he speak, and he will tell you things to come." Now this verse is undoubtedly clear. Who is, or who could be, that person other than Muhammad (ASW), who invited the whole of humanity to the truth, whose every statement was based on revelation, who announced whatsoever he received from Gabriel (AS), and who informed humanity in detail about Doomsday and the Hereafter?

The books of other prophets include names that correspond in Syriac and Hebrew to the various names of the Prophet (ASW) such as Muhammad, Ahmad and Mukhtar. For example, in the tablets of the Prophet Shu'ayb (AS), his name is Mushaffaf and means "Muhammad." In the Torah of Moses (AS), he is mentioned as Munhamanna, which again means "Muhammad," and as Himyata, which means "the Prophet of al-Haram." In the Psalms of David (AS), he is named al-Mukhtar. Again in the Torah of Moses (AS), the name is al-Hatam al-Khatam. Both in the Torah of Moses (AS) and in the Psalms of David (AS), it is Muqim as-Sunna. In the Tablets of Abraham (AS) and in the Torah of Moses (AS), he is mentioned as Mazmaz, and again in the Torah of Moses (AS) as Ahyad.

Allah's Messenger (ASW) said, "In the Qur'an, my name is Muhammad, in the Indjil Ahmad, and in the Tawrat Ahyad." In fact, the NT refers to him as "the possessor of the sword and the staff." Indeed, he is the greatest among the prophets who carried the sword, and was commanded to wage jihad together with his Umma (Muslim Peoples). The NT also describes him as "wearing a crown.' What is meant here is a turban, for in former days it was the Arabs who generally wore headcover with a wrapper around them. Hence, the description refers of a certainty to Muhammad (ASW). The term Paraclete in the NT, or Faraqlit, is defined in Biblical interpretation as "the one who distinguishes good from evil." It is and should be therefore the name of a messenger (Rasul) who will lead the humanity of future times to the right death. Since Jesus (AS) said that he would go and the Spirit of Truth would come, who else other than Muhammad (ASW) had come as the leader of humanity after Jesus (AS), distinguishing good from evil and guiding man? Jesus (AS) always gave his followers the good tidings that "One will come, and there will be no longer any need for me. I am a forerunner of his, and bring the good news of his coming." Confirming this is the following verse from the [Qur'an 61:6]:

"And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said, 'O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was revealed before me in the Tawrat and bringing the good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad (the praised one)."

Certainly, Jesus (AS) gave in the Indjil the good news many times, the news that the most significant leader of humanity was to come, and he mentioned him with some names and titles in Syriac and Hebrew that mean, as scholars in the field confirmed, Ahmad, Muhammad, and Fariq (separating truth from falsehood).

[ [Note by B.S.N.:] At the site of the tomb of Sham'un as-Safa, the famous traveller Evliya Celebi came across the following verses from the Gospel of Jesus (AS) written on a gazelle hide: "A youth from the progeny of Abraham is to be a Prophet. He will not be a liar; his birthplace is Mecca: he will come with piety; his blessed name is Ahmad Muhammad;* those who obey him will flourish in this world." [note within note]
*Mavamit is an alteration of Mamad, and Mamad is the alteration of 'Muhammad.']

A QUESTION: Why is it that the other prophets only foretold the coming of Muhammad (ASW), while Jesus (AS) described it more strongly than any other Prophet did?

ANSWER: Muhammad (ASW) defends Jesus (AS) against the awesome denial and slanders of the Jews (AS) and saves Jesus's true religion from corruption. Furthermore, instead of the burdensome distorted religion of the Children of Israel who do not recognize Jesus (AS), he presents a feasible and all-encompassing religion that will complete the true religion of Jesus (AS). For this reason Jesus (AS) announced many times the joyful tidings of the coming of the world's leader. Now it is clear that in the Torah of Moses (AS), the Gospel of Jesus (AS), the Psalms of David (AS), and in the tablets of other prophets, there are numerous mentions of a Prophet promised to come at a later time, and these mentions include the various names of such a Prophet (ASW). Of these names we have pointed out only a few examples. Since this Prophet is repeatedly and with utmost emphasis mentioned in all the prophetic books, who else could he be, if not Muhammad (ASW), the Prophet of the last age?

The Second Kind:

The signs of prophethood that were manifested by way of irhasat also include those tidings of his coming given by the soothsayers and gnostics who lived during the time* between the prophethood of Jesus (AS) and that of Muhammad (ASW), and those who knew of Allah (SWT) and would be considered to a degree as awliya (the pious people who are close to Allah) of their time. They too gave tidings of Muhammad (ASW)'s coming, propagated their claims, and entrusted their records to later generations in the form of poetry. There are numerous examples in this respect, but we will cite only a few which are renowned and accepted as accurate by authorities on history and the biography of the Prophet (ASW).

[[*]This period is called 'Devr-i Fetret', and had many similarities with the present.]

FIRST: Among the rulers of Yemen, one named Tubba' saw the description of the Prophet (ASW) in the scriptures, believed in Muhammad (ASW), and proclaimed his belief with these words: "I bear witness to Ahmad, for he is a messenger from Allah, the Creator of man. Were I to live long enough to see him, I would be a minister and a cousin to him." That is, "I would be like Ali (RA) "

SECOND: Quss b. Sa'ida was the most renowned and most significant orator of the Arabs, a monotheist, and a man of enlightened mind. Before the Prophet (ASW) was sent, he announced Muhammad ASW's messengership with these verses: "Ahmad shall be sent forth among us, the best Prophet ever sent. Allah's blessings be upon him whenever a riding party sets out amidst cries!"

THIRD: Ka'b b. Luayy one of the forefathers of the Prophet (ASW), announced the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW) by way of inspiration as follows: "Suddenly will come the Prophet Muhammad. And will truthfully give true tidings."

FOURTH: Sayf b. Dhiyazan, the ruler of Yemen, learned the description of Allah's Messenger from the earlier scriptures and came to believe in him and longed for him. When Abdulmuttalib, the grandfather of Muhammad (ASW), went to Yemen with some other men from the Quraish, Sayf summoned them and said, "A child will be born in Hijaz, with a mark between his two shoulders that resembles a seal. He will be the leader of humanity." Then, in private he told Abdulmuttalib, "You are his grandfather." He thus gave, in a wondrous way, the tidings of Muhammad (ASW) before he came.

FIFTH: Waraqa b. Nawfal was the parental cousin of Khadija (RA). When the first revelation came to Muhammad (ASW) and he was deeply shaken by this, Khadija narrated the incident to Waraqa. He said, "Send him to me." When Allah's Messenger (ASW) told him about the occurrence of the first revelation, Waraqa said, "Good tidings to you, O Muhammad, and I bear witness to you, for you are the Prophet who has long been awaited and glad tidings of whom were given by Jesus (AS)."

SIXTH: Asqalan al-Himyari, a man with true knowledge of Allah (SWT), once asked the Quraish at a time prior to the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW), "Is there anyone among you who claims prophethood?" "No," they said. Later, after the proclamation of the prophethood, he again asked them the same question. They answered, "Yes, there is one claiming prophethood." Then he said, "That is the one the world is awaiting!"

SEVENTH: Ibn al-Ala, a renowned Christian scholar, gave tidings of Muhammad (ASW) before his mission had begun and without even seeing the Prophet (ASW). Later, when he met Allah's Messenger (ASW), he said, "By the One Who sent you with the truth, I have found your description in the Gospel of Jesus, and the son of Mary gave glad tidings of your coming."

EIGHTH: The Negus of Ethiopia, who has been mentioned previously, said, "I wish I were in Muhammad's service rather than being a sovereign king."

The signs of prophethood that were manifested by way of irhasat also include those tidings of Prophet Muhammad's (ASW) coming given by the foretellers that lived in the time between the prophethood of Jesus (AS) and that of Muhammad (ASW), and those who knew of Allah and would be considered to a degree as awliya (the pious people who are close to Allah) of their time. In addition to these men of deep learning who, through the inspiration from Allah (SWT), gave tidings of the Unseen, the foretellers who learned about the Unseen by means of the spirits and jinn also clearly foretold the coming of Allah's Messenger (ASW) and his prophethood. From among the numerous examples, we will mention only a few famous ones that are recorded in many books of the Prophet's (ASW) biography and of history and that have become mutawatir in meaning.

[Foretelling was practiced before the Qur'an, but not after. Editor]

FIRST: A famous foreteller named Shiqq, who looked very much like half a man with only one eye, one arm and one leg, repeatedly foretold the messengership of Muhammad (ASW), and his reports have been recorded in history books, with the certainty of tawatur in meaning.

SECOND: The famous foreteller of Damascus, Satih, was a monstrosity; he lacked bones, even limbs, had a face that looked like a part of his breast, and lived a very long life. He was highly reputed for his predictions. In fact, Chosroes, the Persian ruler, once sent him a learned man named Muyzan to ask for the interpretation of a strange dream of Chosroes and the meaning of the collapse of the fourteen pillars of his palace that had occurred on the night of Muhammad's (ASW) birth. Satih said, "Fourteen rulers will reign, and then your empire will be utterly destroyed. A man will come with a religion, and will abolish both your religion and empire." In this clear statement Satih predicted the arrival of the last Prophet (ASW).

Some other foretellers such as Sawad b. Qarib ad-Dawsi, Khunafir, Af'a Najran, Jizl b. Jizl al Kindi, Ibn Khalasat ad-Dawsi and Fatima bint an Nu'man an-Najariyya, as books of history and the Prophet's (ASW) biography have recorded in detail, also predicted that the last Prophet (ASW) would arrive, and that he would be Muhammad (ASW). Sa'd b. bint al-Kurayz, a relative of Uthman (RA), also learned the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW). At the very beginning of Islam, he told Uthman to go and accept faith. Uthman (RA) did so, and entered the fold of Islam at the very beginning. Here Sa'd relates this incident in a poem: "Through my words, Allah has guided Uthman to the source that yields righteousness; truly Allah guides to the truth!"

Like foretellers, those from among the jinn called hatif, who are not seen but whose voice can be heard, gave many times tidings of the coming of Allah's Messenger (ASW). For example, a hatif became the means for the turning to Islam of Zayab b. al-Haris and some others, by calling him, "O Zayab, O Zayab, listen to the oddest thing: Muhammad arrived with the Book, he is calling on Mecca, yet they do not accept him." Another hatif called out to Sami'a b. Qarrat al-Ghatafani, "The truth has come and risen forth, the false is destroyed and uprooted." Hearing this, some people accepted faith. Such messages of hatifs are well-known and numerous.

In addition to the foretellers and hatifs, idols and even the animals sacrificed for idols also proclaimed the messengership of Allah's Messenger (ASW). For example, in a well-known case, the idol of the Mazan tribe cried out to them, "This is the Prophet (ASW) who was to come; he has come with the truth that has been revealed to him." The famous incident that caused Abbas b. Mardas to enter Islam was that he had an idol called Dimar. Once a voice was heard from Dimar, saying. "Dimar was worshipped before the declaration of Prophet Muhammad; now Dimar's time is over."

Before his conversion to Islam, Umar (RA) had heard a sacrifice offered to the idols proclaiming, "O sacrificer, the means of success are at hand: an eloquent man is proclaiming, 'No god but Allah.' " There are many more incidents similar to those mentioned above, and they are all narrated as authentic reports in reliable sources. In addition to the predictions of foretellers, learned men, hatifs, idols and the sacrifices that caused some people to accept faith; some passages such as "Muhammadun Muslihun Amin (Muhammad, a worker of righteousness, a trustworthy one)." were found written in earlier scripts on some stones, grave sites, and graveyard stones. Through these some were converted to faith. Obviously, such passages written on the stones in earlier scripts refer to Allah's Messenger (ASW). For during the time preceding the Prophet (ASW) there were only seven Muhammads and no more, with none among them deserving the designation Muslihun Amin.

The Third Kind:

These are the irhasat including the wondrous events that occurred at the time of, and in conjunction with, Muhammad (ASW)'s birth. As for the other wonders that took place before the beginning of his prophethood, each of them is a miracle of his, and there are many incidents related to his birth. As examples, we will cite a few of those that became well-known and accepted by narration scholars, and are of verified authenticity.

FIRST: On the night of the Prophet (ASW)'s birth, his mother and the mothers of Uthman b. As and of Abdurrahman b. al-Awf saw a magnificent light. All three of them said, "Such a light did we see during his birth that it illuminated the East and the West for us."

SECOND: During that night many of the idols in the Ka'ba toppled over.

THIRD: During the same night the palace of the famous Chosroes shook and cracked, and its fourteen pinnacles collapsed.

FOURTH: On that night the sanctified lake of Sava sank into the soil. Again on that night, the fire that was worshiped by the Magians at Istakrabad and that had been kindled continuously for a thousand years without ever being extinguished, went out. These four incidents were all signs that the being who had just come into the world would abolish fire-worship, demolish the palace of the Persian royalty, and prohibit sanctification of things that Allah does not allow to be sanctified.

FIFTH: Although they do not coincide with the night of his birth, certain events that took place not long before it are also included in the irhasat of Muhammad (ASW). An example is the War of the Elephant, which is mentioned in the Qur'an in Chapter al-Fil. In order to destroy the Ka'ba, Abraha, the Emperor of Ethiopia, once led his forces with a huge elephant named Mahmudi marching ahead in front. When they came near Mecca, the elephant stopped. They could not find any way of making the elephant continue, so they retreated. On their way, a flight of birds attacked and routed them. This curious event is well-known and is recorded in detail in history books. It is also a sign of the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW), by means of which, at a time close to his birth, the holy Ka'ba, his home and birthplace, was saved in a miraculous way from the destruction of Abraha.

SIXTH: When Muhammad (ASW) was with Halima Sa'diya during his childhood, both Halima and her husband observed many times a small cloud over his head providing shade so that he would not be discomforted by the sun. They related this to the people, and the occurrence acquired an accurate renown. Similarly, when he went to the vicinity of Damascus at the age of twelve, Bahira the monk witnessed and pointed out to others that a small cloud above Muhammad (ASW) provided shade for him. Again, prior to his prophethood, Muhammad (ASW) once returned from a trading trip with Maysara, the servant of Khadija. Then Khadija noticed above Muhammad (ASW) two angels in the form of a cloud and mentioned it to Maysara. Maysara said, "I observed the same throughout the journey."

SEVENTH: As established by an authentic narration some time before the advent of his prophethood, Muhammad (ASW) once sat under a tree. Though the area was dry, it suddenly became green, and the branches of the tree provided shade by twisting around and bending over him.

EIGHTH: During his infancy, Muhammad (ASW) was living with Abu Talib. Whenever Abu Talib and his household ate with him, they would be fully satisfied. However, such was not the case when he was not present at the meal. This fact is also well-known and accurate. Umm Ayman, who looked after and served Muhammad (ASW) during his childhood said, "Never did he complain about hunger and thirst, neither when he was very little, nor when he grew up."

NINTH: It is another certain and well-known fact that the milk of the goats and the goods of his wet-nurse Halima Sa'diya were, unlike those of others in the tribe, very plentiful and abundant. Moreover, even flies did not bother him. They did not alight on his blessed body, nor on his clothing. One of his descendants, Sayyid Abdul Qadir Gilani (RA), also inherited this quality from his ancestor, for flies would not alight upon him either.

TENTH: After his arrival in this world, especially during the night of his birth, shooting stars became more frequent, which was, as proved with decisive argument in the Fifteenth Word, a sign that the access of Satan and jinn to information concerning the Unseen was to cease. Since Allah's Messenger (ASW) had appeared in this world with revelation, it was necessary to bar the knowledge concerning the Unseen that was transmitted by soothsayers and jinn and was inaccurate and mixed with falsehoods, so that their knowledge should not cause any doubt concerning revelation or resemble it. In fact, soothsaying was widespread before prophethood: the Qur'an brought it to an end. In the meantime, many soothsayers accepted Islam, for they could no longer communicate with their informers, as their means of communication had been terminated by the Qur'an. Now a new type of soothsaying has appeared in the form of mediums among the spiritualists of the West. However, we will not go into this now. To conclude, numerous individuals were known and many events became evident confirming, or causing others to confirm, his prophethood even before he declared his message. This is a privilege for a being who will be the spiritual leader of the world, who will change the inner structure of the world and make it a field to be cultivated for the other world, who will proclaim the high value of the beings of this world, who will rescue transitory man and jinn from eternal annihilation and show them the way to eternal bliss; who will disclose the wisdom of the creation of the world, its complexity and its mystery, who will know and make known the purposes of the Creator of the cosmos in creation, and who will recognize and demonstrate that Creator[*]. Certainly, everything, every species and every class of being will be filled with joy at the news of the arrival of such being and await him longingly. If all creatures are informed of it by the Creator, they will announce this news too, and will receive him with hearty acclamation as soon as he comes. This is indeed what every species of creation did, as we have seen in the previous Signs and Examples; each received him by demonstrating one variety of his miracles and thereby affirmed his prophethood.

[*] Indeed, he is the person addressed by the well-known Hadith-i Qudsi which says "But for you I would not have created the heavens,"[1] And such a leader is he that his sovereignty has been unceasing for fourteen centuries. After the first century, he has had at least 350 million followers in each century with half of the globe in the shade of his banner, his followers call down upon him everyday peace greetings and blessings of Allah SWT, obey his commands with utmost submission, and renew day after day their oath of allegiance.
[1] Since unless such a Messenger like Muhammad (ASW) chosen by Allah (SWT) to announce, teach, and show in his own worship the Purposes of Creation of the universe and the Names of Allah (SWT) enlightening the universe were not to be created, there was no use of creation. Indeed, by his utter devotion, complete submission, and worship to Allah (SWT), Prophet Muhammad (ASW) fulfilled the purpose of creation at the utmost limit possible, and with his supplication and prayer he wanted the opening of the everlasting realm where him and the whole creation would reside forever subject to the grace and bounties of Allah (SWT) who is Eternal and the Most Beautiful. All-knowing Allah (SWT), whose knowledge is absolute, accepted the prayers and worship of Muhammad (ASW) before even the time began, created the universe and His Most Beloved, Muhammed (ASW), addressed him with the Qur'an the Mighty Stature, made him His Messenger to the universe, and answered the prayers of His-Beloved by creating the hereafter. Editor. Comments are based on other writings of B. S. N.
SEVENTEENTH SIGN:

After the Qur'an, the greatest miracle of Allah's Messenger is his personality, comprising the highest moral virtues. Indeed, friend and foe were in unanimous agreement that he stood at the highest level of whatever is recognized as a laudable virtue. So much so that a man of great bravery Ali (RA), said again and again, "When the fighting became fierce, we would take refuge behind the Prophet (ASW) and maintain our stronghold." Likewise in all praiseworthy qualities he possessed the highest and unreachable degree. For this miracle of his, we refer the reader to Shifa ash-Sharif by Qadi Iyad in which the miraculousness of his praiseworthy virtues is beautifully explained and proven. Another great miracle of Muhammad (ASW) is, as affirmed by friend and foe, his supreme Sacred Law, the like of which never came before, nor will ever come after. For a partial explanation of this supreme miracle, we refer the reader to all our writings, and especially the thirty-three Words thirty-three Letters, thirty-one Flashes, and thirteen Rays. Among his greatest miracles, a certain and mutawatir one, is the splitting of the moon. This miracle was related through various channels, to the degree of tawatur, and by the foremost among the Companions such as Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Ali, Anas and Hudhayfa (RA). Moreover, the Qur'an also announced this supreme miracle to the whole world with the verse [Qur'an 54:1]:

"The Hour is nigh and the moon split."

To this verse, even the stubborn unbelievers of the time could not respond with denial; all that they said was, "It is magic." Thus, the splitting of the moon is certain even from the viewpoint of the unbelievers. More on this miracle is to be found in the 'Treatise on the Splitting of the Moon' that was written as an appendix to the Thirty-First Word.

As Allah's Messenger (ASW) showed the inhabitants of the earth the miracle of the splitting of the moon, so too, he showed the inhabitants of the heavens a still greater miracle of his, the 'Night Journey' or the 'Ascension.'

Referring this supreme miracle to the Thirty-First Word that is entitled the 'Treatise on the Night Journey' and demonstrates with clear evidence the occurrence sublimity and brightness of this miracle; we will merely touch upon another miracle that occurred in relation to the 'Night Journey' when the Quraish people asked the Prophet (ASW), following the night of the 'Night Journey' for the description of Masjid al-Aqsa, which was his point of departure for the Ascension. When the Prophet (ASW) informed the Quraish about his Ascension, they dismissed it as false, and said, "If you have really travelled to the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, then describe to us its doors, walls and condition." Allah's Messenger (ASW) later said, "I was annoyed by their question and denial in a way that had never happened to me before. Suddenly, Allah Almighty lifted the veil between me and the Masjid al-Aqsa and manifested it to me, so that I looked at it, saw it, and described it." Thus, the Quraish realized that he was giving the correct and complete description.

"The Hour (of Judgement) is near, and the moon split. But if they see a Sign, they turn away, and say, 'This is transient magic.' " [Al Qur'an 54:1-2]

On the Miracle of the Splitting of the Moon appendix to the ineteenth and Thirty-First Words Materialist philosophers and their absurd imitators, who attempt to cast a shadow over such a moon-like miracle of Muhammad (ASW) by vicious misgivings, say, "If the splitting of the moon had occurred, it would have been known to the whole world and narrated in all books of history."

OUR ANSWER: The splitting of the moon was demonstrated as an evidence of prophethood. It happened instantaneously before a particular group of deniers at night time when people were asleep. There were, at the same time, obstacles that prevented others from witnessing this event, such as fog, clouds, and time differences between parts of the world. Furthermore, science had not spread at the time, so that researchers were very limited. This miracle, therefore, was not intended to be witnessed all over the world and to be narrated by all historians. Now listen to the following Five Points that will clear the clouds of misgiving concerning the miracle of the splitting of the moon.

First Point: The extreme stubbornness of the unbelievers at that time was notorious. However, when the Most Wise Qur'an announced this occurrence through the verse,

"And the moon split ,"

none of them dared to contradict the event that was reported by this verse, although they were rejectors of the whole of the Qur'an. If this event had not been witnessed by the unbelievers, they would have denounced this verse and made use of this opportunity in their formidable attacks against the Prophet (ASW). Whereas neither the Prophet's (ASW) biography nor history reports a word of denial of the occurrence of this event from them. What has been narrated by history is, as the verse,

"They say, 'This is transient magic,' "

point to, that they called it 'magic.' They said, 'If the caravan at other places have witnessed this, it is true, otherwise it is magic." When the caravans coming from Yemen and other places told them the following morning that they had witnessed such an event, the deniers said -Ha Shaa (Allah forbid) - "the magic of Abu Talib's orphan has affected the heavens!"

Second Point: Most of the foremost scholars such as Sa'd ad-Din at-Taftazani have stated that "The occurrence of the splitting of the moon is mutawatir, just like the running of water from the fingers of the Prophet (ASW) and the drinking of a whole army from it, the weeping of a wooden pillar, against which the Prophet (ASW) would lean when delivering sermons, at the Prophet's separation and its being heard by a vast audience. This has been transmitted by one truthful group of people to another, forming together so vast a community as its collusion to lie is inconceivable. It is as certain as a famous comet having been seen a thousand years ago, or as the existence of the island of Ceylon that we have not seen." To express doubts about such certain and witnessed occurrences is unreasonable. For their not being impossible is enough reason for their acceptability; as for the splitting of the moon, it is quite as possible as a mountain's splitting with a volcanic eruption.

Third Point: Miracles take place in order to prove the claim of prophethood, to convince deniers, but not to force them to believe. This miracle was needed to convince those who had already heard of the prophethood of Muhammad (ASW). To let it be seen from other parts of the world, or to demonstrate it in an undeniably obvious way, therefore, would have been contrary both to the wisdom of the All-Wise Creator and to the purpose of man's function in the universe, which is to open the way for the mind without disabling the free will. If the All-Wise Creator had, in accordance with the whims of materialist philosophers, left the moon in the same condition for a few hours to show it to the entire world, and if this fact had thereby been recorded by all historians, it would have been treated among other astronomical incidents, without being restricted to the messengership of Muhammad (ASW) and without being considered a proof of his prophethood. Or, it would have been such an obvious miracle that it would have forced the minds to believe and deprived it of the free will. As a consequence, coal and diamonds (or Abu Jahl and Abu Bakr (RA)) would have been the same -the purpose of man's function in the universe would have been lost. This may have been the reason why this miracle was not shown to the entire world to be recorded in all books of history.

Fourth Point: Since this event took place instantaneously and at night time when people were asleep, it would not, of course, have been seen everywhere. Even if some people had seen it, they would not have believed their eyes; even if they had, such individual reports would not have constituted an inexhaustible theme for historians. Furthermore, and in addition to some other obstacles, it was sunset in Spain and England (which were then under the clouds of ignorance) when this incident happened, daytime in America, and morning in China and Japan; so it could not be observed in other parts of the world. Yet thoughtless rejectors say, "It did not occur, as it is not mentioned in the histories of such people as the Chinese, Japanese, and Americans." A thousand curses upon such bootlickers of the Western philosophers! On the other hand, the fabricated claim that the moon came down to earth after it had split into two parts has been rejected by scholars of consensus. It has been suggested that this claim is probably the work of a hypocrite, aimed at reducing the value of this manifest miracle.

Fifth Point: The splitting of the moon was not a product of chance, nor did it occur as a result of natural causes; the ordinary laws of creation are hence inapplicable to this case. In fact, the All-Wise Creator of the sun and the moon wonderfully brought it about as evidence to uphold the prophethood of His Messenger (ASW) and to throw greater light upon his course. The purpose of human obligation, the mystery of guidance and the wisdom of the prophetic message required its demonstration to certain people defined by Allah's wisdom. Those who were not intended and who had not yet heard about the message of Muhammad (ASW) were prevented from seeing this occurrence by means of many obstacles such as clouds, fog, and time differences. If it had been shown to all alike as a miracle of the Prophet (ASW), his prophethood would have been so manifest that everyone would have been compelled to accept it; nothing would have been left to the mind -whereas belief is to be acquired by the choice of the mind- and the motive of human obligation would have been lost. If, on the other hand, it had been shown to others as an astronomical incident, it would have had no peculiarity to and no relationship with the message of Muhammad (ASW). As the possibility of the happening of the splitting of the moon has clearly been demonstrated, and there remains no doubt about it, we will now point out six evidences of its occurrence out of many.

    The concurrence of the Companions of the Prophet (ASW), who are all men of justice,
    The agreement of all discerning interpreters on the explanation of the verse, "And the moon split,"
    Its having been narrated by all truthful narration scholars through various authentic channels,
    The testimony of all the men of truth and piety (awliya) -the men of inspiration and spiritual discovery (ahl-i kashf),
    The confirmation of theologians who widely vary in their outlooks and of profound scholars,
    The concurrence of the umma of Muhammad (ASW), who, as established by authentic narration, "never agree on error."

These are the six evidences that prove the splitting of the moon as brightly as the sun.

To conclude, our words up to now have been aimed at providing the occurrence of the miracle and the refutation of the objections to it. The words henceforth will be on behalf of truth and in the name of faith. So much for the proof; now the truth speaks:

The Seal of the Prophets and the brilliant moon in the heaven of messengership (ASW) showed through his Ascension the greatest wonder and the supreme miracle of his personal position of piety and devotion (wali-ness), one at the degree of the best beloved servant of Allah (SWT). This miracle was to conduct an earthly being through the heavens and show the inhabitants of the heavens and of the highest abodes his superiority to them and his belovedness of Allah. Similarly, such a miracle was demonstrated to the inhabitants of the earth as evidence of his messengership that the moon, which is set in the sky and bound to the earth, split into two upon the gesture of an earthly being. These two miracles of his messengership acting as two luminous wings -like the two luminous wings of the moon split into two- he flew to the heaven of perfection, to the Distance of Two Bowstrings, and became the glory of both the inhabitants of the earth and those of the heavens.

So many peace and blessings be upon him and his Family as to fill the earth and heavens. Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge save that which You have taught us: verily You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.
EIGHTEENTH SIGN:

The greatest miracle of Allah's Messenger (ASW), an eternal one, is the Most Wise Qur'an, one that includes hundreds of facts in evidence of his prophethood and a miraculousness of forty different aspects. The forty aspects of its miraculousness are briefly demonstrated in the one hundred and fifty pages of the Twenty-Fifth Word. We will therefore refer the reader to that Word about this spring of miracles, the greatest miracle itself, and will touch upon here a few significant considerations in this respect.

First Remark

It may be asked, "The miraculousness of the Qur'an lies in its eloquence. Every class of society has a share in the understanding of this miraculousness. How is it that only one discerning scholar among a thousand can comprehend its eloquence?"

ANSWER: The Most Wise Qur'an has a different kind of miraculousness corresponding to the understanding of each class; it indicates its miraculousness to each of them in a different way. To the men of rhetoric and eloquence, it exhibits the miraculousness of its extraordinary eloquence; to poets and orators, it shows its exalted, beautiful and peculiar style, one that pleases everyone, yet can be imitated by no one. Nor does it become old in the course of time; it is still fresh and it is always new -its rhythmical prose and fluent verse have great nobility and charm. To soothsayers and other communicators of hidden things, the Qur'an shows a different aspect of its miraculousness, one consisting of the reports it amazingly gives concerning the Unseen. To historians, it presents its miraculousness also, by giving information concerning events of the past ages, as well as the conditions and events of the future, of the intermediate world and the everlasting realm. As for social and political scientists, it shows them the miraculousness of its sacred rules that comprise the Supreme Sacred Law. To those seeking knowledge of the Creator and the truths of creation, it shows, or indicates, the miraculousness of the sacred truths that are included in the Qur'an. And to the men of spiritual advancement and piety it unfolds deep meanings in its miraculous verses that rise in successive motions like the waves of a sea. That is, with its forty different aspects, the Qur'an shows forty different classes of people its miraculousness by opening to each a different window. Even those masses who simply listen to the Qur'an and derive only a limited degree of meaning from it agree that the Qur'an does not sound like other books. Such a man says, upon listening to the Qur'an, "The Qur'an is either below the degree of all other books that we listen to -and this is a hundredfold impossibility and cannot be claimed by even its enemies- or above them all and thus is a miracle." Now, in order to help him a little more, we will elaborate on the kind of miraculousness that is perceived by such a common man who can judge only by what his ears hear.

When the Miraculous Qur'an emerged with a challenge to the whole world, it stirred up in people two kinds of feelings.

First: For friends, a desire to imitate it, to write and speak like their beloved Qur'an.

Second: For enemies, a passion to criticize and dispute, to compete with its style and to nullify its claim of miraculousness. With these two kinds of passion, millions of books have been written in Arabic, and they are still in existence. Whoever listens to even the most eloquent and profound ones among them will certainly say, "The Qur'an does not sound like any of them." Thus, the Qur'an is not of the same degree of other books; it is either below them all -an impossibility to the hundredth degree claimed by no one, not even by Satan" -or above all other books that have ever been written.

[If, supposing the impossible, the Qur'an was below an any given book, then it would be below all the books since Allah's Word would not be below any human work, and this would imply that the Qur'an claiming such connection to Allah Almighty would be uttering a great lie, to which the whole universe would have rejected by falsifying the information in it and Allah himself would have cursed it and not given so much success and glory. Editors.]

Another miraculous aspect of the Most Wise Qur'an that places it above all other books is that its recitation does not bore anyone, not even a common man who cannot comprehend its meaning. Indeed, such a person would say, "If I hear the most beautiful and famous couplet a few times, it starts to bore me. But this is not the case for the Qur'an: the more I listen to, the more pleasant it becomes. Thus, it cannot be the composition of man."

The Most Wise Qur'an has a miraculous aspect also directed to children engaged in its memorization. Despite its many similar verses and passages that might cause confusion and perplexity, children easily memorize it although they cannot retain long even a simple page with their delicate, little minds.

Even for the sick and those lying down half-conscious in the throes of death, who would normally be disturbed by conversations around them or even a slight noise, the recitation and sound of the Qur'an becomes as sweet and comforting as the water of Zamzam; thus the Qur'an conveys to them a different aspect of its miraculousness. To summarize, the Qur'an shows and implies the existence of its miraculousness to forty different classes of people in forty different aspects, without leaving anyone deprived. Even for those who can comprehend only what their eyes see and who have no ear to hear with, no heart to feel with, and no knowledge to judge with, the Qur'an has a sign of miraculousness.[*]

[*]Here the miraculousness of the Qur'an directed to those without ear, heart and knowledge, and who see only with their eyes, has been abbreviated and left unexpounded, even defective. Besides, we have a copy of Qur'an written in a style that will manifest this miraculous aspect. It will, Allah Willing, be printed by photographical methods someday, so that everyone will see this beautiful quality of the Qur'an. B. S. N. [Now, it is printed. Editor]

For example, in the copy of the Qur'an handwritten by the calligrapher Hafiz Osman (RA) and later printed, there are many related words that are situated at corresponding places on different pages. If the page is pierced with a needle beneath the word "dog" in the phrase "they were seven, the dog being the eighth" in Surat al-Kahf [18:22], with a slight deviation it will go through the word "Qitmir" in Surat al-Fatir [35:13], thus establishing the name of the dog. In a similar way. the words "they will be brought before us" occur twice in Surat al-Yasin [36:53 and 75], and both correspond to each other. The same words are again repeated twice in Surat as-Saffat [37:57 and 127]; these occurrences both correspond to each other and to those in Surat al-Yasin. Also the phrase "in pairs" toward the end of Surat as-Saba [34:46] corresponds to the same phrase at the beginning of Surat al-Fatir [35:1], and this cannot be a mere coincidence, because this phrase occurs only three times in the whole Qur'an. There are numerous examples of this kind in the Qur'an; in some cases, the very same word coincides, with a little deviation, in five or six places. I once saw a copy of the Qur'an in which were written in red ink similar passages facing each other on two facing pages. Then I mused, "This is an indication of a different kind of miracle." Later I noticed that on varying pages there are many more passages significantly facing each other. Since the form of writing of the Qur'an was arranged upon the Prophet (ASW)'s instruction and the printed copies are also the results of Allah's inspiration, its design and calligraphy bear the indications of a kind of miracle, for this result can neither be a mere coincidence nor the product of human thought. As for the existing slight deviations, they are in fact the results of human errors; if arranged properly, they would coincide perfectly.

Furthermore, in each page of the suras of great or medium length that were revealed in Medina, the word Allah is repeated, in a very novel manner, mostly five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven times on each page, and these repetitions coincide with one another both on the two sides of each sheet and on the two facing pages, thus displaying a beautiful and significant harmony and numerical proportion.

Note 1: Although the Qur'an has many qualities that capture the attention of the reader, such as its ornate and rhymed words and eloquent and artistic style; it provides, in uninterrupted fashion, for those praising Allah and supplicating to Him, a lofty earnestness, a tranquillity of mind and a remembrance of being in the presence of Allah. However, in other literary works that rhetoric and artistic wording, that rhythmical and poetic composition, usually disturbs with its elegance the peace of the mind, weakens seriousness and distracts attention. In fact, I have read very many times the famous supplication of Imam Shafi'i (RA), the most gracious and most esteemed one of its kind that has a unique poetic arrangement and once caused the end of dearth and famine in Egypt. As I read it, I observed that its rhymed and rhythmical wording interrupts the solemnity of supplication. Although I have been reading it continuously for some seven or eight years, I could not reconcile such a seriousness with its rhyme and poetic arrangement. From this, I deduced that there is a miraculousness contained in the genuine, natural and unique rhyme and rhythm of the Qur'an and in its virtues that preserve peace and solemnity. Those given to praise and remembrance will feel this miraculousness in their hearts, even if their minds do not realize it.

<b: Another miraculous aspect of the Qur'an concerning the Prophet (ASW) is that it shows his being the object of the manifestation of the Greatest Name of Allah and the excellence of his faith that is at the highest and brightest degree. It also details, like a sacred map, the lofty truths of the words of the hereafter and of the Lord's kingdom, and displays to us and instructs us in the sublime nature of the exalted, vast and comprehensive religion of truth. It conveys the address of the Creator to the cosmos as the Lord of all being, with all His glory and majesty. With this quality as its nature, the Qur'an certainly could not be challenged even if the whole intellect of humanity united and became of one mind. "Say, If the whole of mankind and jinn were to gather to produce the like of this Qur'an they could not produce its like." [Qur'an, 17: 88] How could they, since there is the same distance between them and the Qur'an as the distance between the earth and the Pleiades? Indeed, because of the three Essential aspects listed above, the Qur'an is inimitable; the like of it can never be produced.

Note 3: At the end of all the pages of the Qur'an the verses become complete, and with a very fine rhyme they come to an end. Since the verse called Mudayana [Qur'an, 2:292] provides the standard for pages and the suras Ikhlas and Kauthar for lines, this miraculous sign of the Qur'an becomes manifest in a beautiful fashion.

Note 4: Because of unfortunate haste, we had to content ourselves in this section with some slight indications and brief instances, and a very particular aspect of a highly important and magnificent wonder, one that has a beautiful, illuminating and encouraging aspect concerning the success of the Risale-i Nur. Now there are some five or six forms of tawafuq [*], this great truth and this beautiful wonder, and they comprise a chain of wonders related to the Risale-i Nur, the flashes of an evident kind of miraculousness of the Qur'an, and a source of the signs explaining the Qur'anic miracles concerning the information about the Unseen. Later we had a copy of the Qur'an written, one that shows in gold a miraculous flash of the Qur'an stemming from the correspondence of the words referring to Allah. We have also written eight small treatises entitled the Eight Ciphers in the explanation of some signs of the indicative (ishari) meanings of the Qur'an, and a delightful correlation resulting from the correspondence of its letters. Also written by us are the Wonders of Ghauth al-Gilani (RA), three treatises on the Wonders of Ali (RA) and another treatise entitled the Indications of the Qur'an, all of which explain some wonders that become manifest in the form of tawafuq and indicate an appreciation and commendation of the Risale-i Nur by those great personalities. Thus, this great truth had been briefly felt in the writing of the Miracles of Muhammad (SAW). Unfortunately the author had then perceived and demonstrated only a glimpse of this truth, and, without looking profoundly, hastened away. B. S. N.

[*] Tewafuk: The unintentional arrangement of the same words on a vertical line in a page, or in the same position of different pages. Editors.

Second Remark

As the art of magic was widespread at the time of Moses (AS), the important miracles that appeared with him were of appropriate nature; and the practice of medicine was prevalent at the time of Jesus (AS), the miracles prevailing then were of the same kind. Similarly, four crafts were in great popularity at the time of Prophet Muhammad (ASW): first, eloquence and fluency in writing; second, poetry and oratory; third, soothsaying and divination; and fourth, knowledge about the events of the past and the facts of cosmology.

When the Qur'an came, it challenged at the same time the experts in these four fields. First, it made the men of eloquence bow down before it. They all listened to it with amazement. Second, it stunned the poets and orators so that they bit their fingers in astonishment. Their most beautiful poems written in gold were given a blow, and the famous Seven Poems that were placed on the walls of the Ka'ba as an object of pride were brought down. Third, It also silenced the soothsayers and magicians, made them forget about their discoveries of hidden knowledge, resulted in the expulsion of the jinn from the heavens, and brought the process of divination to a certain end. Fourth, It rescued from myth and fabrications those who were cognizant of the events of bygone times and the facts of cosmology, teaching them the real story of past events and the illuminating knowledge of the facts of creation. Thus did those four groups bow down before the Qur'an in astonishment and respect and become its students. None of them ever dared dispute with a single verse of it.

If you were to ask, "How do we know that none was able to dispute with the Qur'an, or that such a dispute was totally impossible?" our answer would be this: Had any possibility of such dispute ever existed, undoubtedly it would have been attempted, for there was extreme need for it. After all, the religion of the Quraish, their properties, lives and households were all in danger, and could have been saved with a successful dispute. If any attempt had been made to dispute, the unbeliever and hypocrites would have taken the same side, and by taking the issue for themselves, they would have advertised it widely, as they were in great numbers -just as they spread all sorts of malicious propaganda against Islam. If they had mounted any successful dispute, this would have been recorded with splendor in the books of history. Now all the books of history are out in the open: none contains anything other than a few anecdotes of the false prophet, Musaylima the Liar. Certainly, they never dared dispute, although the Most Wise Qur'an challenged them continuously for twenty-three years in a way that irritated them and incited their stubborn reaction, saying in effect: "Bring the like of this Qur'an by means of an unlettered person like Muhammad (ASW)! If you cannot do that, let it be not an unlettered person, but the most learned and literary one. If you cannot do that, let it not be one person, but gather all your learned and eloquent ones and let them help each other. Also invoke the aid of your gods in whom you place trust. This too you cannot do: so make use of all the books of the highest eloquence that have ever been written and those that are still to be written, ask for their aid, and produce the like of the Qur'an. Still you cannot produce an equal to the whole Qur'an; so let it be the like of only ten suras of it. If you cannot match any ten suras truly and in all respects, then make them up from baseless stories and imaginative tales, and bring about something that will match only the poetry and eloquence of the Qur'an. If you still cannot succeed, then bring the like of only one sura, and not a long one; the equal of any short sura will suffice! Otherwise your religion, your lives and properties will be at stake both in this world and in the hereafter!" With these eight alternatives, the Qur'an has challenged and silenced men and jinn, not for twenty-three years, but for more than thirteen centuries. [Now fourteen centuries, Editor's Note]

Nonetheless, those unbelievers did not have recourse to the easiest way, that is, open debate, but chose from the beginning the most dreadful way, to wage war, putting in danger their lives and properties and their households. Thus, dispute must certainly have been impossible. Otherwise no man of wisdom, especially those of the Arabian peninsula of that time and especially those intelligent men of the Quraish, would have had resorted to this most difficult way, if any literary man among them had been able to produce the like of a single sura of the Qur'an and thus save them from the attacks of the Qur'an. In summary, as the famous Jahiz put it, "Dispute by words was impossible, and they had to resort to struggle by the sword."

Question: "Some discerning scholars said, 'Not a sura of the Qur'an, nor a verse, nor a sentence, nor even a word can be disputed. Nor has such a thing ever happened.' This claim is too hard to accept; it sounds like an exaggeration. For many words of man have a similarity to those in the Qur'an. How do you explain this?"

Answer: There are two different opinions:

First (Prevailing) Opinion: According to the prevailing opinion, the reason for the Qur'an being inimitable is that the elegance inherent in the eloquence of the Qur'an and the virtues in its meaning are beyond human capacity.

Second Opinion: Although any attempt of dispute against a sura of the Qur'an is humanly possible, Allah Almighty prevented it as a miracle of Muhammad (ASW). For example, if the Prophet (ASW) said to a man, who was normally able to stand up, "You will not be able to stand up," and the man could not then stand up, this would be a miracle of the Prophet (ASW). This second way is called Sarfa, and from its point of view, Allah Almighty prevented men and jinn from opposing even one sura of the Qur'an: if He had not, they could have opposed [regardless of success]. So according to this view, the words of the scholars quoted above are quite right. For, prevented by Allah Almighty on account of the miraculousness of the Qur'an, they could not even open their mouths for dispute: even if they had, they could not have uttered a word without the permission of Allah (SWT).

The claim of the scholars, however, has also a subtle point from the viewpoint of the first and prevailing opinion. For the segments and words of the Qur'an are all interrelated, there are times when one word is related to ten other places. Thereby bearing ten different relationships and furnishing ten aspects of eloquence. Our Qur'anic commentary, the Signs of Miraculousness, showed some examples in this respect drawn from some passages of Surat al-Fatiha and from the ayats,

Alif Laam Miim. This is the Book;in it is guidance sure, without doubt. [Qur'an 2:1-2]

Consider, for example, an ornate palace: to place a gem that will form the knot of a wall-pattern in the most convenient location with respect to the different designs on the walls of the palace is possible only by knowing the whole design exactly. Similarly, to place the pupil of the eye in its correct place in a man's head is possible only by knowing the complete function of the whole body and its complex organization, as well as its relationship to the functioning of the eye. So, too, the most advanced among men of truth (muhakkikiin) have shown the relationship between the words of the Qur'an and their aspects that gaze upon one another. Those who expound on letters and derive meaning from them have gone even further, and made pages long explanations of meanings contained in a single letter of the Qur'an.

Furthermore, since the Qur'an is the word of the Creator of all beings, every word of it may be considered as a heart with an ideal body of meanings dressed around it, or a seed which flourishes to an ideal glamorous tree. Thus, it may be possible that there might exist some words of man similar to those of the Qur'an, but properly placing them in the most purposeful and meaningful way taking into account of all such relationships as in the case of the Qur'anic wording calls for an all-comprehending knowledge.

Third Remark A very brief reflection on the miraculous exposition of the Qur'an was once inspired in my heart by the grace of Allah. Now I will give a translation of that Arabic passage:

The six sides of the Qur'an are luminous and brilliant; neither doubt nor misgiving can penetrate it. Its back is supported by the throne of Allah; there it has the light of revelation. Its front and its goal is the happiness of the two worlds; it lays its hand upon eternity, the hereafter, and there it has the luminosity of Paradise and eternal bliss. Above it shines the seal of miraculousness, beneath it lie the pillars of proof and evidence, inside it is the pure guidance. With the phrases like "Will they not understand?" its right causes the mind to affirm its truth. With the spiritual pleasures it bestows upon the heart, its left makes the conscience testify to its miraculousness. >From which side or aspect could then the perpetrators of suspicion infringe upon such a miraculous exposition?

The Miraculous Qur'an briefly includes the books of all the prophets and all the men of tawhed, the methods, circumstances, and temperaments of whom were all different. That is, in spite of their different aspects, all men with truth-seeking heart and intelligence, affirmed the laws and fundamentals of the Qur'an in their own books, and each became one of the roots of a celestial tree the seed of which is the Qur'an.

The Most Wise Qur'an is not that it is 'based' on revelation, but it actually is revelation. The Glorious One Who revealed it demonstrated through the miracles of Muhammad (ASW) that it is revelation; the Qur'an itself shows with its miraculousness that it is coming from the throne of Allah; the anxiety of Allah's Messenger at the beginning of revelations, his half-conscious state when receiving revelation and his most sincere respect toward the Qur'an, exceeding that of everyone else- all give evidence that the Qur'an is revelation, derived from pre-eternity and entrusted to the Prophet (ASW).

The Qur'an is manifestly pure guidance, for its opposite is observably the misguidance of unbelief. It is necessarily the source of the light of belief, for its opposite is certainly darkness, as we have clearly explained in the Words [Body of writings by the same scholar. Editor's Note.]

The Qur'an is surely the spring of truths; no illusion and no superstition can enter it. The truthful world of Islam that it organized, the well-founded Sacred Law that it presented, and the highest virtues it displayed all testify that its mention of the matters of the Unseen -as well as that of the matters of the manifest world- is of pure truth, and there is no room in it for falsehood. The Qur'an undoubtedly shows the way to happiness in both worlds and urges man towards it. For whoever doubts this, it will suffice to read the Qur'an once and heed what it says.

The fruits it produced are the ripest and life-giving ones. Then, too, its roots are embedded in truth and true life, for the life of the fruit indicates the life of the tree. Now look: how many perfect, vigorous and luminous fruits it has borne in each century, such as the men of tawhed and piety!

The Qur'an is, with a conviction derived from endless indications, so esteemed and sought after by men, jinn and the angels that whenever the Qur'an is read, they gather around it as the ants gather around bread.

[Editors' Note: Unfortunately, most of the men of this century are blinded with materialism and devoured by his selfish desires and pharoah-like ego. They cannot see nor hear nor understand the most appealing, the most truthful, the most convincing call of the Qur'an.]

Besides being revelation, the Qur'an is also corroborated and fortified with rational evidence, as is unanimously agreed upon by the most profound men of thought and reason. In fact, geniuses of philosophy such as Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Averroes (Ibn Rushd) and religious scholars have unanimously demonstrated the truth of the fundamentals of the Qur'an with sound reasoning. The Qur'an is also affirmed by the human conscience and nature. Human nature will affirm that is not defective and alien. Therefore, contentment of conscience and tranquility of heart are to be had only with the light of the Qur'an. Then, unspoiled human conscience ultimately affirms it with contentment, and says to the Qur'an,

"We have no meaning, no prosperity, no happiness without you!" This fact has been explained in detail in the rest of the Risale-i Nur. The Qur'an is, obviously and observably, a permanent and eternal miracle; it constantly unfolds its miraculousness. Never does it extinguish like other kinds of miracles, nor does it ever come to an end.

It is at such a vast degree of guidance that Gabriel (AS) and a young child listen to it shoulder to shoulder, both receiving their shares. And a brilliant genius like Avicenna receives his lessons from the Qur'an knee to knee with an ordinary reciter; that ordinary man might indeed benefit, by virtue of the purity and strength of his faith, more than Avicenna.

Such a sight is contained in the exposition of the Qur'an that it sees and takes into consideration the whole cosmos like the pages of a book, and then expounds on its spheres and heavens. In this function, the Qur'an is very much like a watchmaker opening, showing, and describing his watch [*]. Indeed, it is the Glorious Qur'an that says,
"Know and be certain that there is no god but Allah,"

and declares Tawhed.

O Allah, make of the Qur'an our companion in this world and our confidant in the tomb, our intercessor in the hereafter and our light on the Bridge of Sirat; a veil and a protection against the fire, a friend in Paradise, and a guide and leader to all that is good.

O Allah, enlighten our hearts and our tombs with the light of faith and the Qur'an, and illumine the proof of the Qur'an for the sake of him (the Messenger of Allah) to whom You sent down the Book, and upon whom Your peace and blessings be, O the Compassionate and the Most Generous One. Amen. [end of eighteenth sign.]

[*] Indeed, a document coming from the Throne of the Creator of the universe in which no sign of negligence can be found, from the minute wing of a bee to the giant stars, certainly, will declare that Complete Ownership of such creation solely belongs to His Sender. In such a document, Allah as the Owner of the Worlds will give authentic information about His Laws with which He puts everything under His rule and dominion; He declares what He does. If any book attributed to Allah has a faulty information about the facts of the universe, then that book is not authentic. The Book of Allah should necessarily be so Glorious and so Miraculous in the exposition of the seen and unseen worlds that it should in a way interpret the book of the universe so adequately and precisely; and such a Book is the Qur'an. Editors.
NINETEENTH SIGN

Muhammad (ASW) himself IS the Proof: In the previous (eighteen) Signs, it has been shown in an indubitably certain way that Muhammad (ASW) is the Messenger of Allah Almighty. With his messengership supported by thousands of decisive evidences, he himself is the brightest sign and the most definite proof of the Oneness of Allah and the existence of eternal felicity. In this Sign, we will give a very brief description of this shining sign, this truth-speaking proof. Since he is the proof, and his end-purpose is to transmit the knowledge of Allah through evidences, we certainly need to recognize the proof first, and to come to recognize the qualities that make him the proof. Therefore, we will here briefly expound on those qualities and show their authenticity.

Like the very existence of this universe, the very person of Allah's Messenger (ASW) also gives evidence to the existence and oneness of the Creator of the universe. In addition, he is the one who announces the nature of his own evidence and those of all other beings declared by their innate language. Now we will point in Fifteen Essentials to the evidence, steadfast direction, authenticity and correctness of this proof.

First Essential: Prophet Muhammed (ASW), who gives evidence of the Maker of the universe in his person, word, act and disposition, is both himself truthful and also affirmed by the tongue of creation. This is expected because it is just a requirement of wisdom that the testimony of all beings that attest to the Oneness of Allah is also an affirmation of the words of Muhammed (ASW) who announces the Oneness of the Creator. Thus, he has in his claim the support of all creation. Moreover, his declaration of the Oneness of Allah which is the absolute perfection and the eternal happiness which is the pure blessing entirely agrees with the beauty and perfection of all the facts observed in the universe; therefore, he is certainly correct in his mission. Yes, Allah's Messenger (ASW) is an articulate and truthful proof for the Oneness of Allah and eternal felicity, and his truthfulness is attested by all creation.

Second Essential: This truthful and verified proof is the head of all prophets since he has thousands of miracles excelling those of all other prophets, together with a Sacred Law that will never be abrogated and a message that embraces all men and jinn. Therefore, he essentially gathers as his support the miracles of all earlier prophets and their concurrence in his message of Tawhed. Thus, the concurrence of all the prophets and the testimony of all their miracles constitute a support for his honesty and correctness. He is, at the same time, the leader and master of all men of piety and purity who have acquired high merits with his teaching and guidance and with the light of his Sacred Law. Thus he essentially gathers as his support their wonders, their unanimous affirmation and the combined strength of their detailed investigations of the truth. Since the way they follow is the one opened and left open by him, and they thus attained truth, all their wonders and conclusions and their concurrence in his message comprise a proof for the honesty and correctness of their exalted teacher.

As has been verified by the past Signs, this proof of Oneness of Allah is equipped with such certain, evident and definite miracles, wondrous irhasat, and irrefutable evidences of his prophethood that their affirmation could not be disputed, even were the whole universe to unite against him.

Third Essential: This possessor of evident miracles, this proclaimer of the Oneness of Allah (SWT) and herald of eternal happiness has such lofty virtues in his blessed personality, such illustrious qualities in his messengership and such precious merits in the religion and Sacred Law that he brought that even his most fanatical enemies cannot but admit them and cannot find strength to deny him.

Since he combines in his nature, duty and religion the highest, loftiest, most perfect, most beautiful, most esteemed and most precious virtues, he is the personal example, representative, and the master of all perfection and of all the lofty virtues of creation. And the perfect state that he reached in his blessed person, his duty of messengership and religion, is such a sound proof for his honesty and correctness that there is no chance of its being shaken in any way.

Fourth Essential: This announcer of the Oneness of Allah (SWT) and felicity, this spring of perfection and teacher of high morality is not speaking on his own, rather he is being made to speak by the Creator of the universe. He first receives instruction from his Pre-Eternal Master, and then instructs others. With the thousands of proofs of his prophethood, which were partly mentioned in the previous Signs, and by creating all those miracles through his hand, the Creator of the universe showed that he does speak on His behalf and delivers His Word.

The Qur'an that was revealed to him gives evidence with its forty kinds of miracles that he is the interpreter of Allah Almighty. He, in his person, also demonstrates with his complete sincerity, piety, seriousness, trustworthiness and with all his other acts and states that he is not propagating his own ideas for his sake but is speaking on behalf of His Creator.

In addition, all men of truth who listened to him have also affirmed through profound study and inspired discovery, and have come to believe with the certainty of true knowledge that it is the Creator of all being Who causes him to speak, Who teaches him, and makes him a teacher. Thus, his honesty and correctness are supported by the concurrence of these four aspects of extreme soundness.

Fifth Essential: This interpreter of the Pre-Eternal Word sees spirits, converses with angels, and guides jinn and men alike. His learning far exceeds not only that of the whole jinn and human kingdoms, but also that of all the inhabitants of the incorporeal abode and the angels. He has access to and a relationship with the realms that lie beyond theirs. The miracles that we have mentioned and the story of his life that has the authenticity of tawatur all give evidence to this fact. The reports he gives from the Unseen, therefore, do not resemble those of soothsayers; no one else can become mingled with his reprints-no man, no jinn, no spirit, no angel, not even any of the Archangels with the exception of Gabriel (AS). Even Gabriel (AS), his friend and companion, most of the time falls behind him.

Sixth Essential: Muhammad (ASW) being the master of angels, jinn and mankind, is the most luminous and most perfect fruit of the tree of creation, the representation of the Mercy of Allah, the example of Rabb's Love, the most brilliant proof of the Truth, the brightest light of truth, the key to the hidden facts of the universe, the discoverer of the mystery of creation, the commentator on the purpose of the universe, the announcer of Allah's Sovereignty, the describer of the beauties of Rabb's Art, and, by virtue of his comprehensive innate potential, the most excellent exemplar of all the perfections of creation. These qualities together with his spiritual personality indicate, or even demonstrate, that he is the cause for the creation of the cosmos. That is, the Creator of the universe knew him ahead of time, and created the universe. It may be said that if Allah had not created him, He would not have created the universe as well. Indeed, the truths of the Qur'an and the light of faith that he brought to man and jinn, and the lofty virtues and illustrious perfection that are observed in his being, are the decisive proofs of this fact.

Seventh Essential: This truthful proof and light of truth has presented such a religion and law that they contain all the means needed for happiness in both worlds. They also declare in perfect correctness the truths of the universe and its functions, as well as the Names and Attributes of the Creator of the universe. The religion of Islam and its Sacred Law are so excellent, so comprehensive and so well in describing the Creator and the whole of creation that anyone who reflects on that religion certainly realizes that it is the declaration of the One Who made this beautiful universe describing both the universe and Himself. Just as a constructor of a palace would write a suitable description in order to display his skills; so, too, the religion and the Sacred Law of Muhammad (ASW) show such a comprehensiveness, sublimity and accuracy that it proves to be the work of the Pen of the One Who creates and sustains this universe. The One Who beautifully arranges this universe is the One Who also beautifully arranges this religion; indeed, that most excellent order certainly calls for the most beautiful versification [of the Qur'an] !

Eighth Essential: Endowed with the qualities mentioned, standing on unshakeable ground, turned to the visible world, Muhammad the Arab (ASW) announces in the name of the Unseen to men and jinn, and addresses all peoples and nations behind the coming centuries with such a strong voice that all men and jinn of all times and places hear him. And so do we!

Ninth Essential: He makes his address with such strength and loftiness that all times listen to him, and every century hears the echo of his voice.

Tenth Essential: His manner reveals that he sees, and conveys that which he sees. For even at the most perilous times, he speaks with the utmost firmness and without the least hesitation or anxiety. At times, he being alone challenges the whole world.

Eleventh Essential: He calls with all his vigor. Indeed, his call is such a mighty one that he has caused the half of the globe and one fifth of humanity to say "Labbayk. We have heard and we have obeyed."

Twelfth Essential: He invites humanity with such seriousness and educates them with such soundness that he leaves the permanent impress of his principles on the forehead of all centuries, on the stones of all lands, and on the faces of all ages.

Thirteenth Essential: He invites [all] and speaks with such trust and confidence in the soundness of the decrees he is transmitting that even if the whole world had united, it could not make him retract or regret a single one of his principles. The witness to this fact is the whole history of his life and his exalted biography.

Fourteenth Essential: With such certainty and assuredness does he invite and summon that he never seeks the aid of anyone and never shows anxiety under any circumstances. With utmost sincerity and purity, he announces the laws he has brought, and he accepts and practises before anyone else. The witnesses to this fact are--as is known by friend and foe alike--his piety, contentment, and disdain toward the transient allurements of the world.

Fifteenth Essential: His obedience to the religion he brought, his worship to his Creator, and his piety in refraining from the prohibited things far more than anybody else clearly shows that he is the envoy and announcer of the Sovereign of Pre-and Post-Eternity, His most sincere servant and the interpreter of the Pre-Eternal Word.

The conclusion of the above Fifteen Essentials is that this great person, endowed with the virtues mentioned, repeatedly and continually declared, "There is no god but Allah," throughout his life and proclaimed the Absolute Oneness and Uniqueness of Allah (SWT).

O Allah, grant him and his Family peace and blessings to the number of the good deeds of his community. Glory be unto Thee! We have no knowledge save that which Thou hast taught us: verily Thou art All-Knowing, All-Wise.

A DIVINE GIFT AND A MARK OF DOMINICAL FAVOUR

In the hope of complying with the meaning of the verse,

But the favour of your Sustainer, rehearse and proclaim,

I shall mention a mark of Almighty God's favour and mercy which was apparent in the writing of this treatise, so that those who read it may understand its importance.

I had no intention of writing this treatise, for the Nineteenth and Thirty-First Words about the prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) had been written. Then suddenly I felt a compelling impulse to write it. Also my power of memory had been extinguished due to the calamities I had suffered. Moreover, in accordance with my way, I had not taken the path of narrative, that is, "he said that," "it was said that," in the works I had written. Furthermore, I had no books of Hadith or the Prophet's biography available to me. Nevertheless, saying: "I place my trust in God," I began. It was extremely successful, and my memory assisted me in a way that surpassed even that of the Old Said. Thirty to forty pages were written at speed every two or three hours. Once fifteen pages were written in a single hour. It was mostly narrated from such books as Bukhari, Muslim, Bayhaqi, Tirmidhi, Shifa al-Sharif, Abu Nuaym, and Tabari. My heart was trembling, because if there had been any error in relating them - since they are Hadiths - it would have been a sin. But it was clear that Divine favour was with us and there was need for the treatise. God willing, what has been written is sound. If perhaps there are any errors in the wording of some of the Hadiths or in the names of the narrators, I request that my brothers will look on them tolerantly and correct them.

Said Nursi

Ustad Said Nursi, our master, dictated and we wrote the first draft. He had no books with him, nor did he refer to any. He would suddenly dictate at great speed, and we wrote. We would write thirty, forty, and sometimes more, pages in two or three hours. We formed the conviction that this success was itself a wonder proceeding from the miracles of the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH).

Abdullah Cavus

His student in permanent attendance on him.
    

Suleyman Sami

His scribe of rough drafts in permanent attendance on him.
    

Hâfiz Halid

His scribe of rough drafts in permanent attendance on him.
    

Hâfiz Tevfik

His scribe of rough and final drafts.

The First Addendum to the Miracles of Muhammed (PBUH)

[The Nineteenth Word about the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) and the Miracle of the Splitting of the Moon have been included here due to their `station.']

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

Also being the Fourteenth Flash, this Word consists of Fourteen Droplets.

FIRST DROPLET

There are three great and universal things which make known to us our Sustainer. One is the Book of the Universe, a jot of whose testimony we have heard from the thirteen Flashes together with the Thirteenth Word of the Risale-i Nur. Another is the Seal of the Prophets (Upon whom be blessings and peace), the supreme sign of the Book of the Universe. Now, we must become acquainted with the Seal of the Prophets (Upon whom be blessings and peace), who is the second and Articulate Proof, and must listen to him.

Indeed, look at the collective personality of this proof: the face of the earth has become his mosque, Mecca, his mihrab, and Medina, his pulpit. Our Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), this clear proof, is leader to all the believers, preacher to all mankind, the chief of all the prophets, lord of all the saints, the leader of a circle for the remembrance of God comprising all the prophets and saints. He is a luminous tree whose living roots are all the prophets, and fresh fruits are all the saints; whose claims all the prophets relying on their miracles and all the saints relying on their wonder-working confirm and corroborate. For he declares and claims: There is no god but God! And all on left and right, that is, those luminous reciters of God's Names lined up in the past and the future, repeat the same words, and through their consensus in effect declare: "You speak the truth and what you say is right!" What false idea has the power to meddle in a claim which is thus affirmed and corroborated by thousands?

SECOND DROPLET

Just as that luminous Proof of Divine Unity is affirmed by the unanimity and consensus of those two wings, so too, do hundreds of indications in the revealed scriptures, like the Torah and Bible, and the thousands of, signs that appeared before the beginning of his mission, and the well-known news of the voices from the Unseen and the unanimous testimony of the soothsayers, the indications of the thousands of his miracles, like the Splitting of the Moon, and the justice of Shari'a all confirm and corroborate him. So too, in his person, his laudable morals, which were at the summit of perfection; and in his duties, his complete confidence and elevated qualities, which were of the highest excellence, and his extraordinary fear of God worship seriousness, and fortitude, which demonstrated the strength of his belief, and his total certainty and his complete steadfastness, all show as clearly as the sun how utterly faithful he was to his cause.

THIRD DROPLET

If you wish, come! Let us go to Arabian Peninsula, to the Era of Bliss! In our imaginations, we shall see him at his duties and visit him. Look! We see a person distinguished by his fine character and beautiful form. In his hand is a miraculous Book and on his tongue, a truthful address; he is delivering a pre-eternal sermon to all mankind, indeed, to man, jinn, and the angels, and to all beings. He solves and expounds the strange riddle of the mystery of the world's creation; he discovers and solves the abstruse talisman which is the mystery of the universe; and he provides convincing and satisfying answers to the three awesome and difficult questions that are asked of all beings and have always bewildered and occupied minds: "Where do you come from? What are you doing here? Where are you going?"

FOURTH DROPLET

See! He spreads such a Light of truth that if you look at the universe as being outside the luminous sphere of his truth and guidance, you see it to be like a place of general mourning, and beings strangers to one another and hostile, and inanimate beings to be like ghastly corpses and living creatures like orphans weeping at the blows of death and separation. Now look! Through the Light he spreads, that place of universal mourning has been transformed into a place where God's Names and praises are recited in joy and ecstasy. The foreign, hostile beings have become friends and brothers. While the dumb, dead inanimate creatures have each taken on the form of familiar officials and docile servants. And the weeping, complaining orphans are seen to be either reciting God's Names and praises or offering thanks at being released from their duties.

FIFTH DROPLET

Also, through his Light, the motion and movement of the universe, and its variations, changes and transformations, cease being meaningless, futile, and the playthings of chance and rise to the level of being Dominical missives, pages inscribed with the signs of creation, and mirrors to the Divine Names, and the world itself, a book of the Eternally Besought One's wisdom. And while man's boundless weakness and impotence make him inferior to all other animals and his reason, the means of transmitting grief, sorrow, and sadness, makes him more wretched, when he is illumined with that Light, he rises above all animals and all creatures. Through his illuminated impotence, want, and reason, through entreaty he becomes a petted monarch and through lamenting, a spoiled vicegerent of the earth. That is to say, if it was not for his light, the universe and man, and all things, would be nothing. Yes, certainly such a person is necessary in such a wondrous universe; otherwise the universe and firmaments should not be in existence.

SlXTH DROPLET

Thus, that Being announces and brings the good news of eternal happiness; he is the discoverer and proclaimer of an infinite mercy, the herald and observer of the beauties of the sovereignty of Dominicality, and the discloser and displayer of the treasures of the Divine Names. If you regard him in that way, that is in regard to his being a worshipful servant of God, you will see him to be the model of love, the exemplar of mercy, the glory of mankind, and the most luminous fruit of the tree of creation. While if you look in this way, that is, in regard to his prophethood, you see him to be the proof of God, the lamp of truth, the sun of guidance, and the means to happiness. And look! His Light has lighted up from east to west like dazzling lightening, and half the earth and a fifth of mankind has accepted the gift of his guidance and preserved it like life itself. So how is it that our evil-commanding souls and satans do not accept with all its degrees the basis of all One such as that claimed. that is, "There is no god but God?"

SEVENTH DROPLET

Now, consider how, eradicating in no time at all their evil and savage customs and habits to which they were fanatically attached, he decked out the various wild, unyielding peoples of that broad peninsula with all the finest virtues, and made them teachers of all the world and masters to the civilized nations. See, it was not an outward domination, he conquered and subjugated their minds, spirits, hearts, and souls. He became the beloved of hearts, the teacher of minds, the trainer of souls, the ruler of spirits.

EIGHTH DROPLET

You know that a small habit like cigarette smoking among a small nation can be removed permanently only by a powerful ruler with great effort. But look! This Being removed numerous ingrained habits from intractable, fanatical large nations with slight outward power and little effort in a short period of time, and in their place he so established exalted qualities that they became as firm as if they had mingled with their very blood. He achieved very many extraordinary feats like this. Thus, we present the Arabian Peninsula as a challenge to those who refuse to see the testimony of the blessed age of the Prophet. Let them each take a hundred philosophers, go there, and strive for a hundred years, I wonder if they would be able to carry out in that time one hundredth of what he achieved in a year?

NINTH DROPLET

Also, you know that an insignificant man of small standing among a small community in a disputed matter of small importance cannot tell a small but shameful 1ie brazenfaced and without fear without displaying anxiety or disquiet enough to inform the enemies at his side of his deception. Now look at that Being; although he undertook a tremendous task which required an official of great authority and great standing and a situation of great security, can any contradiction at all be found in the words he uttered among a community of great size in the face of great hostility concerning a great cause and matters of great significance, with great ease and freedom, without fear, hesitation, diffidence, or anxiety, with pure sincerity, great seriousness, and in an intense, elevated manner that angered his enemies? Is if at all possible that any trickery should have been involved? God forbid! It is naught but Revelation inspired. The truth does not deceive, and one who perceives the truth is not deceived. His way which is truth is free of deception. How could a fancy appear to one who sees the truth to be the truth, and deceive him?

TENTH DROPLET

Now, look! What curiosity-arousing, attractive, necessary, and awesome truths he shows and matters he proves.

You know that what impels man most is curiosity. Even, should it be said to you: "If you give half of your life and property, someone will come from the Moon and Jupiter and tell you all about them. And will also tell you correctly about your future and what will happen to you," if you have any curiosity at all, you would give them. Whereas that Being tells of a Monarch Who is such that in His realm, the Moon flies round a moth like a fly, and the moth, the earth, flutters round a lamp, and the lamp, the sun, is merely one lamp among thousands in one guest-house out of thousands of that Monarch.

Also, he speaks truly of a world so wondrous and a revolution that is such that if the earth was a bomb and exploded it would not be all that strange. Look! Listen to Suras like, When the sun is folded up. * When the sky is cleft asunder. * [The Day] of Noise and Clamour, which he recites.

Also, he speaks truly of a future that is such that the future in this world is like a tiny mirage in comparison. And he tells most seriously of a happiness that is such that all worldly happiness is like a fleeting flash of lightening in comparison to an eternal sun.

ELEVENTH DROPLET

For sure, wonders await us under the apparent veil of the universe which is thus strange and perplexing. And one thus wonderful and extraordinary, a displayer of marvels, is necessary to tell of its wonders. And it is apparent from that Being's conduct that he has seen them, and sees them, and says that he has seen them. And he instructs us most soundly concerning what the God of the heavens and the earth, Who nurtures us with His bounties, wants and desires of us. And so, while everyone should leave everything and run to and heed this Being who teaches numerous other necessary and curiosity-arousing truths like these, how is it that most people are deaf and blind, and mad even, so that they do not see this truth, and they do not listen to it and understand it?

TWELFTH DROPLET

Thus, just as this Being is an articulate proof and true evidence at the degree of the truth of the Unity of the Creator of beings, so too is he a decisive proof and clear evidence for the resurrection of the dead and eternal happiness. Indeed, just as with his guidance he is the reason for eternal happiness coming about and is the means of attaining it, so too, through his prayers and supplications, he is the cause of its existence and means of its creation. We repeat here this mystery, which is mentioned in the Tenth Word, due to its `station.'

See! This Being prays with a prayer so supreme that it Is as if the Arabian Peninsula and indeed the earth performs the prayers through his majestic prayer, and offers entreaties. See, he also entreats in a congregation so vast that it is as if all the luminous and perfected members of mankind from the time of Adam till our age and until the end of time, are following him and saying "Amen" to his supplications. And see! He is beseeching for a need so universal that not only the dwellers of the earth, but also those of the heavens, and all beings, join in his prayer, declaring: "Yes! O our Sustainer! Grant it to us! We too want it!" And he supplicates with such want, so sorrowfully, in such a loving, yearning, and beseeching fashion that he brings the whole cosmos to tears, making them join in his prayer.

And see! He prays for a such a purpose and aim that it raises man and the world, and all creatures, from the lowest of the low, from inferiority, worthlessness, and uselessness to the highest of the high; that is, to having value, permanence, and exalted duties. And see! He seeks and pleads for help and mercy in a manner so elevated and sweet that it is as if he makes all beings and the heavens and the earth hear, and bringing them to ecstasy, to exclaim: "Amen, O our God! Amen!" And see! He seeks his needs from One so Powerful, Hearing, and Munificent, One so Knowing, Seeing, and Compassionate, that He sees and hears the most secret need of the most hidden living being and its entreaties, accepts them, and has mercy on it. For He gives what is asked for, even if through the tongue of disposition. And He gives it in so Wise, Seeing, and Compassionate a form that it leaves no doubt that that nurturing and regulation is particular to the All-Hearing and All-Seeing One, the Most Generous and Most Compassionate One.

THIRTEENTH DROPLET

What does he want, this pride of the human race, who taking behind him all the eminent of mankind, stands on top of the world, and raising up his hand, is praying? What is this unique being, who is truly the glory of the cosmos, seeking? Listen! He is seeking eternal happiness. He is asking for eternal life, and to meet with God. He wants Paradise. And he wants all the Sacred Divine Names, which display their beauty and decrees in the mirrors of beings. Even, if it were not for reasons for the fulfillment of those countless requests, like Mercy, Grace, Wisdom, and Justice, a single of that Being's prayers would have been sufficient for the construction of Paradise, the creation of which is as easy for Divine Power as the creation of the spring. Yes, just as his Prophethood was the reason for the opening of this place of examination and trial, so too his worship and servitude to God was the reason of the opening of the next world.

Would the perfect order observed in the universe, which has caused scholars and the intelligent to pronounce: "It is root possible for there to be anything of greater originality in existence than what exists," and would the faultless beauty of art within mercy, the incomparable beauty of Dominicality, permit the ugliness, the cruelty, the lack of order of its hearing and responding to the least significant, the least important desires and voices, and its considering unimportant thc most important, the most necessary wishes, and its not hearing, understanding, and carrying them out? God forbid! A hundred thousand times, God forbid! Such a beauty would not permit such an ugliness; it would not become ugly.

And so, my imaginary friend! That is enough for now, we must return. For if we remain a hundred years in this age in the Arabian Peninsula, we still would only completely comprehend one hundredth of the marvels of that Being's duties and the wonders that he carried out, and we would never tire of watching him.

Now, come! We shall look at the centuries, which will turn above us. See how each has opened like a flower through the effulgence it has received from that Sun of Guidance! They have produced millions of enlightened fruits like Abu Hanifa, Shafi'î, Abu Bayezid Bistamî, Shah Gilanî, Shah Naqshband, Imam Ghazzali and Imam Rabbanî. And postponing the details of our observations to another time, we must recite some benedictions for that displayer of miracles and bringer of guidance, which indicate a number of his certain miracles:

Peace and blessings be upon our master Muhammed thousands and thousands of times, to the number of good deals of his community, to whom was revealed the All-Wise Criterion of Truth and False hood, from One Most Merciful, Most Commpassionate, from the Subline Throne; whose Prophethood was foretold by the Torah and Bible, and told by wondrous signs, the voices of jinn, saints of man, and soothsayers; at whose indication the moon split; our master Muhammed! Peace and blessings be upon him thousands and thousands of times, to the number of the breaths of his community; at whose beckoning came the tree, on whose prayer rain swiftly fell, and whom the cloud shaded from the heat; who satisfied a hundred men with his food; from between whose fingers three times flowed water like the Spring of Kauthar; and to whom God made speak the lizard, the gazelle, the wolf, the torso, the arm, the camel, the mountain, the rock, and the clod; the one who made the Ascension and whose eye did not waver; our master and intercessor, Muhammed! Peace and blessings be upon him thousands and thousands of times, to the number of the letters of the Qur'an formed in the words represented with the permission of the Most Merciful in the mirrors of the airwaves at the reciting of all the words of the Qur'an by all reciters from when it was first revealed to the end of time. And grant us forgiveness and have mercy on us, O God, for each of those blessings. Amen.

[I have described the Evidences for the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) which I have here indicated briefly in a Turkish treatise called Shuaât-i Marifetü'n-Nebi and in the Nineteenth Letter (The Miracles of Muhammed). And there too aspects of the All-Wise Qur'an's miraculousness have been mentioned briefly. Again, in a Turkish treatise called Lemeat and in the Twenty-Fifth Word (The Miraculousness of the Qur'an) I have explained concisely forty ways in which the Qur'an is a miracle, and indicated forty aspects of its miraculousness. And of those forty aspects, only the eloquence in the word order, I have written in forty pages in an Arabic commentary called, Isharatu'l-I'jaz. If you have the need, you may refer to those three works.]

FOURTEENTH DROPLET

The All-Wise Qur'an, the treasury of miracles and supreme miracle, proves the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) together with Divine Unity so decisively that it leaves no need for further proof. And we shall give its definition and indicate one or two flashes of its miraculousness which have been the cause of criticism.

The All-Wise Qur'an, which makes known to us our Sustainer, is thus: it is the pre-eternal translator of the great Book of the Universe; the discloser of the treasures of the Divine Names concealed in the pages of the earth and the heavens; the key to the truths hidden beneath these lines of events; the treasury of the favours of the Most Merciful and pre-eternal addresses, which come forth from the World of the Unseen beyond the veil of this Manifest World; the sun, foundation, and plan of the spiritual world of Islam, and the map of the worlds of the Hereafter; the distinct expounder, lucid exposition, articulate proof, and clear translator of the Divine Essence, attributes, and deeds; the instructor, true wisdom, guide, and leader of the world of humanity; it is both a book of wisdom and law, and a book of prayer and worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation and Divine knowledge - it is book for all spiritual needs; and it is a sacred library offering books appropriate to the ways of all the saints and veracious, the purified and the scholars, whose ways and paths are all different.

Consider the flashes of miraculousness in its repetitions, which are imagined to be a fault: since the Qur'an is both a book of invocation, and a book of prayer, and a book of summons, the repetition in it is desirable, indeed, it is essential and most eloquent. It is not as the faulty imagine. For the mark of invocation is illumination through repetition. The mark of prayer, is strengthening through repetition. The mark of command and summons is confirmation through repetition. Moreover, everyone is not capable of always reading the whole Qur'an, but mostly is able to read one Sura. Therefore, since the most important purposes of the Qur'an are included in most of the longer Suras, each is like a small Qur'an. That is to say, so that no one should be deprived, certain of its purposes like Divine Unity, the resurrection of the dead, and the story of Moses, have been repeated. Also, like bodily needs, spiritual needs also are various. Man is need of some of them each breath; like the body needs air, the spirit needs the word Hu (He). Some he is in need of each hour, like "In the Name of God." And so on. That means the repetition of verses arises from the repetition of need. And it makes the repetition in order to point out the need and awaken and incite it, and to arouse desire and appetite.

Also, the Qur'an is a founder. It is the basis of the Clear Religion, and the foundation of the world of Islam. It changed human social life, and is the answer to the repeated questions of its various classes. Repetition is necessary for a founder in order to establish things. Repetition is necessary to corroborate them. Confirmation, repetition, and repeating are necessary to strengthen them.

Also, it speaks of such mighty matters and minute truths that numerous repetitions are necessary in different forms in order to establish them in the hearts of everyone. Nevertheless, they are apparently repetitions, but in meaning each verse has numerous meanings, numerous benefits, and many aspects and levels. In each place they are mentioned for a different meaning, benefit, and purpose.

Also, the Qur'an's being unspecific and concise in certain matters to do with cosmos is a flash of miraculousness for the purpose of guidance. It cannot be the cause of criticism and is not a fault, like some atheists imagine.

If you ask: "Why does the All-Wise Qur'an not speak of beings in the same way as philosophy and science? It leaves some matters in brief form, and some it speaks of in a simple and superficial way that is easy for the general view, does not wound general feelings, and does not weary or tax the minds of ordinary people. Why is this?"

By way of answer we say: Philosophy has strayed from the path of truth, that's why. Also, of course you have understood from previous Words and what they teach that the All-Wise Qur'an speaks of the universe in order to make known the Divine Essence, attributes, and Names. That is, it explains the meanings of the Book of the Universe to make known its Creator. That means it looks at beings, not for themselves, but for their Creator. Also, it addresses everyone. While philosophy and science look at beings for themselves, and address in particular scientists. In which case, since the All-Wise Qur'an makes beings evidences and proofs, the evidence has to be superficial so that it will be quickly understood in the general view. And since the Qur'an of Guidance addresses all classes of men, the ordinary people, which form the most numerous class, want guidance which is concise with unnecessary things beings vague, and which brings subtle things close with comparisons, and which does not change things which in their superficial view are obvious into an unnecessary or even harmful form, lest it causes them to fall into error.

For example, it says about the sun: "The sun is a revolving lamp or lantern." Because it does not speak of the sun for itself and its nature, but because it is a sort of spring of an order and centre of a system, and order and system are mirrors of the Maker's skill. It says:

The sun runs its course.

that is, the sun revolves. Through calling to mind the well-ordered disposals of Divine power in the revolutions of winter and summer, and day and night with the phrase, The sun revolves, it makes understood the Maker's tremendousness. Thus, whatever the reality of this revolving, it does not affect the order, which is woven and observed, and which is the purpose. It also says,

And set the sun as a lamp.

Through depicting through the word lamp the world in the form of a palace, and that the things within it are decorations, necessities, and provisions prepared for man and living beings, and that the sun also is a subjugated candleholder, it makes known the mercy and bestowal of the Creator. Now look and see what this foolish and prattling philosophy says:

"The sun is a vast burning liquid mass. it causes the planets which have been flung off from it to revolve around it. Its mass is such-and-such. It is this, it is that." It gives to the spirit no perfection of knowledge apart from a terrible dread and fearful wonder. It does not speak of it as the Qur'an does. You may understand from this the value of the matters of philosophy, whose inside is hollow and outside, ostentatious. So do not be deceived by its glittering exterior and be disrespectful towards the most miraculous expositions of the Qur'an!

[NOTE: The Six Drops of the Fourteenth Droplet in the Arabic Risale-i Nur, and especially the Six Points of the Fourth Drop, explain fifteen of the approximately forty sorts of miraculousness of the All-Wise Qur'an. Deeming those to be sufficient, we have limited the discussion here. If you wish, refer to them, and you will find a treasury of miracles...]

O God! Make the Qur'an healing, for us, the writer of this and his peers, from all ills, and a companion to us and to them in our lives and after our deaths, and in this world, and in the grave, and at the Last Judgement an intercessor, and on the Bridge a light, and from the Fire a screen and shield, and in Paradise a friend, and in all good deeds a guide and leader, through Your grace. and munificence and beneficence and mercy, O Most Munificent of the Munificent and Most Merciful of the Merciful! Amen.

O God! Grant blessings and peace to the one to whom was revealed the All-Wise Qur'an, the Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood, and to his Family and Companions, all of them. Amen. Amen.

The Enduring One, He is the Enduring One!

Said Nursi

* * *

About the Miracle of the Splitting of the Moon

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

The Hour is nigh, and the moon is split. * But if they see a sign, they turn away, and say: "This is evident magic." 1

Philosophers and their unreasoning imitators, who want to eclipse with their vicious delusions the Splitting of the Moon, which is a miracle of Muhammed (PBUH) that shines like the moon, say: "If the Splitting of the Moon had occurred, it would have been known to the whole world and would have been related throughout the subsequent history of man."

The Answer: Since the Splitting of the Moon was demonstrated as an evidence of prophethood, and happened instantaneously, at night when people were asleep, and before a gathering who, although they witnessed such an evidence, denied it; and since there were obstacles hindering the sighting of it such as mist, clouds, and time-differences between different parts of the world; and since at that time science and civilization were not widespread, and observation of the skies was very limited, and the event itself was exceptional, there was, therefore, nothing to necessitate that it should have been seen all over the world and passed into the general histories. For now, listen to Five Points out of many that will scatter those clouds of delusion concerning the Splitting of the Moon.

FIRST POINT

The extreme stubbornness of the unbelievers there at that time is well-known and is recorded in history. And yet, when the All-Wise Qur'an announced this event to the whole world through saying:

And the moon is split,

not one of those unbelievers, who denied the Qur'an, spoke up to give the lie to this verse; that is, not one of them denied the event it was announcing. If the event had not been considered as a definite fact by the unbelievers at that time, they would have taken the verse as a pretext, denied it in a most fearsome manner, and tried to attack and overthrow Muhammed's (PBUH) claim to prophethood. However, the biographies of the Prophet and histories mentioning the event relate nothing to suggest that the unbelievers denied it. The only thing that history relates is, as the verse:

And [they] say, "This is evident magic",

points out, the unbelievers who saw the event declared it to be magic, and said that if the caravans in other places had seen it, it was true, otherwise he had bewitched them. The caravans arriving the following morning from the Yemen and other places announced that they had seen such a happening. So the unbelievers then said of the Pride of All the Worlds (PBUH) that, God forbid, the magic of Abu Talib's orphan had affected the heavens.

SECOND POINT

The majority of the most illustrious scholars, like Sa'd al-din Taftazani, declared that like the Prophet had satisfied the thirst of a whole army with water flowing from his fingers, and the whole congregation had heard a dry wooden post against which Muhammed (PBUH) had leant while delivering the sermon weep on being separated from him, the Splitting of the Moon, too, was Mutawatir, that is, had been transmitted by numerous authorities. That is to say, these events had been passed down from group to group forming such a vast congregation that a conspiracy to lie would have been impossible. Like the appearance of the famous Haley's Comet a thousand years ago had been unanimously reported, and the existence of the island of Ceylon was certain due to unanimous reports, although we had not seen it.

And so, it is unreasonable to foster baseless doubts in such certain, witnessed matters. It is enough that they are not impossible. And as for the Splitting of the Moon, it is quite as possible as a mountain's splitting with a volcanic eruption.

THIRD POINT

Miracles are for proving claims to prophethood and for convincing those who deny those claims, they are not for compelling people to believe. Therefore, miracles have to be manifested to those who hear claims to prophethood at a degree that will persuade them. Just as it would be contrary to the All-Wise and Glorious One's wisdom to display them all over the world or in so self-evident a manner that all would be compelled to believe, so would it also be contrary to the mystery of man's responsibility. For this responsibility requires "opening the door to the reason and not removing the power of choice." If the All-Wise Creator had left the moon split for one or two hours in order to show it to the whole world as the philosophers wished, and it had been recorded in all the general histories of man, then it would have been like all other occurrences in the heavens and would not have been an evidence to Muhammed's (PBUH) claim to prophethood and been special to it. Or else it would have been such a self-evident miracle that it would have removed the reason's power of choice, and compelled the reason to accept it; willy-nilly, it would have had to assent to his prophethood. Someone with a coal-like spirit like Abu Jahl would have remained at the same level as someone with a diamond-like spirit like Abu Bakr the Veracious; the mystery of man's responsibility would have been lost. It was due to this mystery that, being both instantaneous, and at nighttime, and at a time of sleep, and time differences, mist, and cloud and other obstacles concealing it, it was not shown to the whole world and did not pass into the histories.

FOURTH POINT

Since this event occurred instantaneously at night while everyone was sleeping, of course it was not seen all over the world. Even if some people had seen it, they would not have believed their eyes. And even if it had made them believe, such a significant event would not have become a permanent source for future histories through isolated individual reports.

In some books it is written that after the moon split into two halves, it fell to earth, but veracious scholars have rejected such additions, saying that they were perhaps added by dissemblers with the intention of reducing to nothing the value of this evident miracle.

And, for example, just as the same time in England and Spain, which were then enveloped in mists of ignorance, would have been just after sunset, in America daytime, and in China and Japan morning, so too in other places there would have been other obstacles preventing it from being seen. Now consider these unreasoning objectors who say that the histories of peoples like the English, Chinese, Japanese, and Americans do not mention it, and that therefore it did not occur. A thousand curses be on the heads of those who toady to Europe and repeat such things.

FIFTH POINT

The Splitting of the Moon happened neither of its own accord in consequence of certain causes, nor as a result of chance, nor was it a natural event that occurred through the ordinary laws of nature. Rather, the All-Wise Creator of the Sun and the Moon caused it to happen as something out of the ordinary in order to confirm His Messenger's prophethood and to illuminate his claim.

As the mystery of guidance, the mystery of human responsibility, and the wisdom of prophethood required, it was demonstrated as a convincing proof to certain people specified by Dominical wisdom. The mystery of wisdom required that it was not shown to people in every region of the world, who had not yet heard of Muhammed's (PBUH) claim to prophethood. Numerous obstacles prevented them, therefore, such as mist, cloud, and time-differences, and the fact that in some countries the moon had not risen, and in others the sun had risen, while in others it was morning, and in yet others the sun had just set.

If it had been shown to all and sundry, it would have been shown as a result of the Sign of Muhammed (PBUH), and a miracle of prophethood, in which case his prophethood would have been so manifest that everyone would have been compelled to affirm it. No choice would have remained for the reason. And belief is attained through the reason's power of choice. The mystery of human responsibility would have been lost. And if it had been shown merely as an occurrence in the heavens, its connection with Muhammed's (PBUH) prophethood would have been severed, and it would have retained no peculiarity to him.

To Conclude: There is no longer any doubt concerning the possibility that the Splitting of the Moon occurred; it has been proved decisively. And now we shall mention six of the many evidences pointing to its occurrence.

The concurrence of the Companions of the Prophet, who were all men of justice, on its occurrence.

Their agreement in expounding the verse, And the moon is split of all exacting commentators on the Qur'an.

The fact that, relying on numerous different chains of authorities and lines of transmission, all the scholars of the Prophetic Traditions and transmitters of the sound narrations narrated the event.

The testimony of all the saints and the veracious, those who receive inspiration, and uncover the mysteries of the creation.

The confirmation of learned scholars and theologians, whose ways differ greatly from one another.

The fact that the Community of Muhammed (PBUH) accepted its occurrence, which, on an established principle, never agrees upon error.

These six evidences prove the Splitting of the Moon as clearly as the sun.

CONCLUSION

Up to here this Addendum has been in the name of establishing the truth, and for the sake of silencing those enemies who deny it. Its concluding sentences will now be in the name of the truth and for the sake of belief. Indeed, establishing the truth spoke as above, now the truth speaks.

The Seal of the Office of Prophethood, who was the luminous moon of its heaven, proved his sainthood through his Ascension. This was the greatest wonder and supreme miracle of sainthood, achieved through his worship, which was so elevated as to make him God's beloved. That is to say, by travelling with his earthly body through the heavens, his superiority and his being God's beloved were demonstrated to the dwellers of the heavens and inhabitants of the lofty worlds. So too, through the moon, which is bound to the earth and suspended in the heavens, being split into two halves at the sign of an inhabitant of the earth, a miracle indicating to that earth-dweller's prophethood was displayed to the other inhabitants of the earth. Thus, the person of Muhammed (PBUH) flew to the very summit of perfections on the two luminous wings of prophethood and sainthood - like the two luminous unfolded wings of the moon; he ascended to the distance of two bow-lengths; he became the cause of pride of both the inhabitants of the heavens and the inhabitants of the earth....

Upon him and upon his Family be blessings and peace such as will fill the earth and the heavens.

Glory be unto You! we have no knowledge save that which You have taught us; indeed, You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.

* * *

The Third Addendum to the Miracles of Muhammed (PBUH)

[This concerns the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) and is the answer, in concise index-like form, to the first of the three questions and difficulties in the Third Principle of the Thirty-First Word, about the Ascension of Muhammed .]

Question: Why is this mighty Ascension special to Muhammed the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace)?

The Answer to your First Difficulty: It has been analyzed in detail in the first thirty Words. So here we shall set out a concise list briefly indicating to the perfections of Muhammed (PBUH), to the signs of his prophethood, and to the fact that he was the most worthy to make the Ascension. It is as follows.

Firstly: Despite numerous corruptions in the texts of Holy Scriptures like the Torah, Gospels, and Psalms, in recent times even, an exacting scholar like Husayn Jisri extracted one hundred and fourteen good tidings indicating the prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), which he set forth in his Risale-i Hamidiya.

Secondly: It has been proved historically that there were many predictions accurately forecasting the prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), like those of the two soothsayers Shiqq and Satih, which, a while previously to his prophethood, gave news of it and the fact that he was to be the final prophet.

Thirdly: There were hundreds of extraordinary happenings, famous in history, called irhasat, that is, signs forewarning men of a coming prophet, like, for example, on the night of Muhammed's (PBUH) birth, the idols in the Ka'ba fell from their places and the famous palace of Khosroes the Persian was rent asunder.

Fourthly: History and the Prophet's biographies show that he satisfied the thirst of an army with water flowing from his fingers, that in the presence of a large congregation in the mosque, the dry wooden support against which Muhammed (PBUH) was leaning moaned like a camel and wept on being separated from him when he ascended the pulpit, and that he was distinguished by close on a thousand miracles attested to by the verses of the Qur'an, such as,

And the moon split,

referring to the splitting of the moon, and verified by those who investigated them.

Fifthly: Anyone who considers the facts and is fair and just cannot hesitate to agree that, as is unanimously agreed by friend and foe alike, good moral qualities were to be found at the highest degree in his personality, and that, in accordance with the testimony of all his dealings and actions, attributes and character of the greatest excellence were apparent in the way he performed his duties and proclaimed Islam, and, in accordance with the fine qualities and conduct enjoined by the religion of Islam, laudable virtues of the highest order were to be found in the law he brought.

Sixthly: As is alluded to in the Second Indication of the Tenth Word, it is a requirement of wisdom that Divinity be manifested. And this desire of Divinity to be manifested is met at the greatest level and in the most brilliant fashion by the comprehensive worship performed by Muhammed (PBUH) in the practice of his religion. Also, wisdom and truth require that the Creator of the world displays His beauty in its utter perfection through some means. And the one who met that wish, and displayed and described His beauty in the most perfect fashion was self-evidently the person of Muhammed (PBUH).

And it was also clearly Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to the desire of the world's Maker to exhibit and attract attentive gazes towards His perfect art within infinite beauty, heralded that art with the loudest voice.

And again it was necessarily Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to the desire of the Sustainer of All the Worlds to proclaim His Unity in the levels of multiplicity, announced all the degrees of Unity, each at the greatest level of Unity.

And, as is indicated by the utter beauty in beings and as is required by truth and wisdom, the world's Owner desires to see and display in mirrors, His infinite essential beauty and the subtleties and qualities of His exquisiteness. And again it was self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to that desire, acted as a mirror and displayed that beauty in the most radiant fashion, and loved it and made others love it.

And, in response to the desire of the Maker of the palace of this world to exhibit and display His hidden treasuries, which are filled with the most wonderful miracles and priceless jewels, and through them to describe and make known His perfections, it was again self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who exhibited, described, and displayed them in the most comprehensive fashion.

And, since the Maker of the universe has made it in such a way that He adorns it with different varieties of wonders and embellishments and has included conscious creatures in it so that they mighty make tours and excursions and ponder over it and take lessons, wisdom requires that He should desire to make known the meanings and value of the works of art to those who observe and ponder over them. And it was again self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to this desire of the universe's Maker, by means of the All-Wise Qur'an, acted as a guide in the most comprehensive fashion to jinn and man, indeed, to spirit beings and angels.

Also, the All-Wise Ruler of the universe wishes, by means of an envoy, to cause all conscious beings to unravel the obscure talisman containing the aim and purpose of the change and transformations in the universe and to solve the riddle of the three perplexing questions: "Where do beings come form?", "Where are they going?", and, "What are they?" And again it was self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to this wish of the All-Wise Ruler, by means of the truths of the Qur'an, unravelled the talisman and solved the riddle in the clearest and most comprehensive fashion.

Also, the All-Glorious Maker of the universe desires to make Himself known to conscious beings by means of all His fine artefacts and to make them love Him through all His precious bounties, and, most certainly, to make known to them by means of an envoy the Divine wishes and what will please Him in return for those bounties. And again it is self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to this desire of the All-Glorious Maker, by means of the Qur'an, expounded those wishes and things that please Him by word and deed in the most exalted and perfect fashion.

Also, since the Sustainer of All the Worlds has given to man, who is the fruit of the universe, a comprehensive disposition which encompasses the universe and has prepared him for universal worship, and since, because of his faculties and senses, multiplicity and the world afflict man, the Sustainer desires to turn man's face from multiplicity to Unity, from transience to permanence. And again it is self-evidently Muhammed (PBUH) who, in response to this desire, by means of the Qur'an, acted as a guide in the most comprehensive and complete fashion, and in the best way, and carried out the duty of prophethood in the most perfect manner.

Thus, among beings the most superior are animate beings, and among animate beings the most superior are conscious beings, and among conscious beings the most superior are true human beings, and among true human beings the one who carried out the above-mentioned duties at the most comprehensive level and in the most perfect form, would, of a certainty, rise through an all-embracing Ascension to the distance of two bow-lengths, knock at the door of eternal happiness, open the treasury of Mercy, and see the hidden truths of belief. Again it would be him.

Seventhly: As is plain to see, beings are made beautiful with the utmost degree of fine embellishment and adornment. And such an embellishment and adornment clearly demonstrate that their Maker possesses an extremely strong will to make beautiful and intention to adorn. And the will to make beautiful and adorn demonstrates that the Maker necessarily possesses a strong desire and holy love towards His art. And among beings the one who displayed altogether in himself the most comprehensive and subtle wonders of art, and knew them and made them known and himself loved, and who appreciated the beauties to be found in other beings, declaring: "What wonders God has willed!", and was most beloved in the sight of his Maker, Who nurtures and loves His art, would most certainly be him.

Thus, the one who, declaring: "All glory be to God! What wonders God has willed! God is most Great!" in the face of the fine and exquisite qualities that gild beings and the subtle perfections that illuminate them, causes the heavens to ring out, and who, through the strains of the Qur'an, causes the universe to reverberate, and through his admiration and appreciation, his contemplation and display, and his mentioning of the Divine Names and affirmation of Divine Unity, brings land and sea to a state of ecstasy, is again self-evidently that one (PBUH).

And so, according to the meaning of 'the cause is like the doer', it is pure truth and sheer wisdom that the one in whose scales shall be found the equivalent of all the good deeds performed by his community, and whose spiritual perfections draw strength from the benedictions of all his community, and who, as a result of the duties he discharged in his prophethood, received immaterial recompense and boundless emanations of Divine Mercy and love, should advance by the stairway of the Ascension as far as Paradise, the Lote-tree of the farthest limit, the Divine Throne, and the distance of two bow-lengths.

* * *

The Fourth Addendum to the Miracles of Muhammed (PBUH)

[The Sixteenth Degree, on the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), from the Supreme Sign.]

Then that traveler through the world addressed his own intellect saying: "Since I am seeking my Master and Creator by means of the creatures of the cosmos, I ought before all else to visit the most celebrated of all these creatures, the greatest and most accomplished commander among them, according to the testimony even of his enemies, the most renowned ruler, the most exalted in speech and the most brilliant an intellect, who has illuminated fourteen centuries with his excellence and with his Qur'an, Muhammad the Arabian Prophet (May God's peace and blessings be upon him)." In order thus to visit him and seek from him the answer to his quest, he entered the blessed age of the Prophet in his mind, and saw that age to be one of true felicity, thanks to that being. For through the light he had brought, he had turned the most primitive and illiterate of peoples into the masters and teachers of the world.

He said too to his own intellect, "Before asking him concerning our Creator, we should first learn that value of this extraordinary being, the veracity of his words and the truthfulness of his warnings." Thus he began investigating, and of the numerous conclusive proofs that he found we will briefly indicate here only nine of the most general ones.

· THE FIRST

All excellent qualities and characteristics were to be found in that extraordinary being, according to the testimony even of his enemies. Hundreds of miracles were made manifest at his hands, according to explicit Qur'anic verses or traditions enjoying the status of tawatur.

Examples of these miracles are his splitting of the moon - And the moon split - with a single indication of his finger; his casting of a handful of dust into the eyes of his enemies, causing them to flee - It was not your act when you threw, hut God's - and his giving his thirsting army to drink from the water that flowed forth from his five fingers like the Spring of Kawthar. Since some of those miracles, numbering mare than three hundred, have been set forth with decisive proofs in the remarkable and wondrous work known as The Miracles of Muhammad (the Nineteenth Letter), we leave discussion of the miracles to that book, and permit the traveller to continue speaking:

"A being who in addition to noble characteristics and perfections has all these luminous miracles to demonstrate, must certainly be the most truthful in speech of all men. It is inconceivable that he would stoop to trickery, lies and error, the deeds of the vile."

· THE SECOND

He holds in his hand a decree from the Lord of the universe, a decree accepted and affirmed in each century by more than three hundred million people. This decree, the Qur'an of Mighty Stature, is wondrous in seven different ways. The fact that the Qur'an has forty different aspects of miraculousness and that it is the ward of the Creator of all beings has been set forth in detail with strong proofs in the Twenty-Fifth Word - The Miraculousness of the Qur'an, a celebrated treatise that is like the sun of the Risale-i Nur. We therefore leave such matters to that work and listen to the traveller as he says, "There can never be any possibility of lying on the part of the being who is the conveyor and proclaimer of this decree, for that would be a violation of the decree and treachery toward the One Who issued it."

· THE THIRD

Such a Sacred Law, an Islam, a code of worship, a cause, a summons, and a faith did that being bring forth that the like of them does not exist, nor could it exist. Nor does a more perfect form of them exist, nor could it exist. For the Law appearing with that unlettered being has no rival in its administration of one fifth of humanity for fourteen centuries, in a just and precise manner through its numerous injuctions. Moreover the Islam that emerged from the deeds, sayings and inward states of that unlettered being has no peer, nor can it have, for in each century it has been for three hundred million men a guide and a refuge, the teacher and educator of their intellects and the illuminator and purifier of their hearts, the cause for the refinement and training of their souls, and the source of progress and advancement of their spirits.

The Prophet is similarly unparalleled in the way in which he was the foremost in practicing all the forms of worship found in this religion, and the first in piety and the fear of God; in his observing the duties of worship fully and with attention to their profoundest dimensions, even while engaged in constant struggle and activity; in his practice of worship combining in perfect fashion the beginning and end of worship and servitude to God without imitation of anyone.

With the Jawshan al-Kabir, from among his thousands of supplicatory prayers and invocations, he describes his Sustainer with such a degree of gnosis that all the gnostics and saints who have come after him have been unable, with their joint efforts, to attain a similar degree of gnosis and accurate description. This shows that in prayer too he is without peer. Whoever looks at the section at the beginning of the Treatise on Supplicatory Prayer which sets forth some part of the meaning of one of the ninety-nine sections of the Jawshan al-Kabir will say that the Jawshan too has no peer.

In his conveying of the message and his summoning men to the truth, he displayed such steadfastness, firmness and courage that although great states and religions, and even his own people, tribe and uncle opposed him in the most hostile fashion, he exhibited not the slightest trace of hesitation anxiety or fear. The fact that he successfully challenged the whole world and made Islam the master of the world likewise proves that there is not and cannot be anyone like him in his conveying of the message and summons.

In his faith, he had so extraordinary a strength, so marvellous a certainty, so miraculous a breadth, and so exalted a conviction, illumining the whole world, that none of the ideas and beliefs then dominating the world, and none of the philosophies of the sages and teachings of the religious leaders, was able, despite extreme hostility and denial, to induce in his certainty, conviction, trust and assurance, the slightest doubt, hesitation, weakness or anxiety. Moreover, the saintly of all ages, headed by the Companions, the foremost in the degrees of belief, have all drawn on his fountain of belief and regarded him as representing the highest degree of faith. This proves that his faith too is matchless. Our traveler therefore concluded, and affirmed with his intellect, that lying and duplicity have no place in the one who has brought such a unique sacred law, such an unparalleled Islam, such a wondrous devotion to worship, such an extraordinary excellence in supplicatory prayer, such a universally acclaimed summons to the truth and such a miraculous faith.

· THE FOURTH

In the same way that the consensus of the prophets is a strong proof for the existence and Unity of God, so too it is a firm testimony to the truthfulness and messengerhood of this being. For all the sacred attributes, miracles and functions that indicate the truthfulness and messengerhood of the prophets (Upon whom be peace) existed in full measure in that being according to the testimony of history. The prophets have verbally predicted the coming of that being and given good tidings thereof in the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms, and the pages; more than twenty of the most conclusive examples of these glad tidings, drawn from the scriptures, have been set forth and proven in the Nineteenth Letter. Similarly, through all the deeds and miracles associated with their prophethood they have affirmed and - as it were - put their signature to the mission of that being which is the foremost and most perfect in the tasks and functions of prophethood. Just as through verbal consensus they indicate the Divine Unity, through the unanimity of their deeds they bear witness to the truthfulness of that being. This too was understood by our traveller.

· THE FIFTH

Similarly, the thousands of saints who have attained truth, reality, perfection, wondrous deeds, unveiling and witnessing through the instruction of this being and following him, bear unanimous witness not only to the Divine Unity but also to the truthfulness and messengerhood of this being. Again, the fact that they witness, through the light of sainthood, some of the truths he proclaimed concerning the World of the Unseen, and that they believe in and affirm all of those truths through the light of belief, either with knowledge of certainty, or with the vision of certainty, or with absolute certainty. He saw that this too demonstates like the sun the degree of truthfulness and rectitude of that great being, their master.

· THE SIXTH

The millions of purified, sincere, and punctilious scholars and faithful sages, who have reached the highest station of learning through the teaching and instruction contained in the sacred truths brought by that being, despite his unlettered nature, the exalted sciences he invented and Divine knowledge he discovered - they not only prove and affirm, unanimously and with the strongest proofs, the Divine Unity which is the foundation of' his mission, but also bear unanimous witness to the truthfulness of this supreme teacher and great master, and to the veracity of his words. This is a proof as clear as daylight. The Risale-i Nur- too with its one hundred parts is but a single proof of his truthfulness.

· THE SEVENTH

The Family and Companions of the Prophet - who with their insight, knowledge, and spiritual accomplishment are the most renowned, the most respected, the most celebrated, the most pious and the most keen-sighted of men after the prophets - examined and scrutinized, with the utmost attention, seriousness and exactitude, all the states, thoughts and conditions of this being, whether hidden or open. They came to the unanimous conclusion that he was the most truthful, exalted, and honest being in the world, and this, their unshakable affirmation and firm belief, is a proof like the daylight attesting the reality of the sun.

· THE EIGHTH

The cosmos indicates its Maker, Inscriber, and Designer, Who creates, administers, and arranges it, and through determining its measure and form and regulating it, has disposal over it as though it was a palace, a book, an exhibition, a spectacle. And so too it indicates that it requires and necessitates an elevated herald, a truthful unveiler, a learned master, and a truthful teacher who will know and make known the Divine purposes in the universe's creation, teach the Dominical instances of wisdom in its changes and transformations, give instruction in the results of its dutiful motions, proclaim its essential value and the perfections of the beings within it, and express the meanings of that mighty book; it indicates that he is certain to exist. Thus, the traveller knew that it testified to the truthfulness of this being, who performed these functions better than anyone, and to his being a. most elevated and loyal official of the universe's Creator.

· THE NINTH

There is behind the veil One Who wishes to demonstrate with these ingenious and wise artifacts the perfection of His talent and art; to make Himself known and loved by means of these countless adorned and decorated creations; to evoke praise and thanks through the unnumbered pleasurable and valuable bounties that he bestows; to cause men to worship Him with gratitude and appreciation in the face of His Dominicality, through His solicitous and protective sustenance of life, and His provision of nurture and bounty in such manner as to satisfy the most delicate of tastes and appetites; to manifest His Divinity through the change of seasons, the alternation of night and day, and through all His magnificent and majestic deeds, all His awe-inspiring and wise acts and creativity, and thereby to cause men to believe in his Divinity, in submission, humility and obedience; and to demonstrate His justice and truthfulness by at all times protecting virtue and the virtuous and destroying evil and the evil, by annihilating with blows from heaven the oppressor and the liar. There will of a certainty be at the side of this Unseen Being His most beloved creature and most devoted bondsman, who, serving the purposes that have just been mentioned, discovers and unravels the talisman and riddle of the creation of the universe, who acts always in the name of that Creator, who seeks aid and success from Him, and who receives them from Him - Muhammad of Quraish (Peace and blessings be upon him!)

The traveller further said, addressing his own intellect: "Since these nine truths bear witness to the truthfulness of this being, he must be the source of glory of mankind and the source of honor for the world. If we therefore call him the Pride of the World and Glory of the Sons of Adam, it will be fitting. The fact that the awesome sovereignty of that decree of the Compassionate One, the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition that he holds in his hand, has conquered half the world, together with his individual perfections and exalted virtues, shows that he is the most important personage in the world. The most important word concerning our Creator is that which he utters."

Now see: the foundation of the summons of this extraordinary being and the aim of all his life, based on the strength furnished by his hundreds of decisive and evident and manifest miracles, and the thousands of exalted, fundamental truths contained in his religion, was to prove and bear witness to the existence of the Necessary Existent, His Unity, attributes and Names, to affirm, proclaim and announce Him. He is therefore like a sun in the cosmos, the most brilliant proof of our Creator, this being whom we call the Beloved of God. There are three forms of great and infallible consensus each of which affirms, confirms, and puts its signature to the witness he bears.

The First: the unanimous affirmation made by that luminous assembly known and celebrated throughout the world as the Family of Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him) including thousands of poles and supreme saints of penetrating gaze and ability to perceive the Unseen, such Imam Ali (May God be pleased with him), who said, "Were the veil to be lifted, my certainty would not increase," and Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani, the Ghauth al-A'zam (May his mystery be sanctified), who saw the Supreme Throne and the awesome form of Israfil while yet on the earth.

The Second: the confirmation made with a strong faith that men to sacrifice their lives and their property, their fathers and tribes, by the renowned assembly known as the Companions, who found themselves among a primitive people and in an unlettered environment, devoid of all social life and political thought, without any scripture and lost in the darkness of a period between prophets; and who in a very brief time came to be the masters, guides, and just rulers of the most civilized and politically and socially advanced peoples and states, and to rule the world from east to west in universally approved fashion.

The Third: the confirmation provided with unanimous and certain knowledge by that lofty group of punctilious and profound scholars of whom in each age thousands spring forth, who advance in wondrous fashion in every science and work in different fields.

Thus, the testimony brought by this being to thc Divine Unity is not particular and individual, but general and universal and unshakable. If all the demons that exist were to unite, they could not challenge it. Such was the conclusion reached by the traveller.

In reference to the lesson learned in the School of Light by that traveller from the world, that wayfarer in life, when he visited in his mind the blessed age of the Prophet, we said at the end of the Sixteenth Degree of the First Station:

There is no god but God, the Necessary Existent, the One, the Unique, the Necessity of Whose Existence in Unity is indicated by the Pride of the World and the Glory of the Sons of Adam, through the majesty of the sovereignty of his Qur'an, the splendor of the expanse of his religion, the multiplicity of his perfections, and the exaltedness of his characteristics, us confirmed even by the testimony of his enemies. He bears witness and brings proof through the strength of his hundreds of manifest and evident miracles, that both testify to truth and are themselves the object of true testimony; and through the strength of the thousands of luminous and conclusive truths contained in his religion, according to the consensus of all the possessors of light, the agreement of his illumined Companions, and the unanimity of the scholars of his community, the possessors of proofs and luminous insight.

The Enduring One, He is the Enduring One!

Said Nursi


Tags : The - Nineteenth - Letter -


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